Urban water management in Ancient Greece: Legacies and lessons

D. Koutsoyiannis, N. Zarkadoulas, A. N. Angelakis, and G. Tchobanoglous, Urban water management in Ancient Greece: Legacies and lessons, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management - ASCE, 134 (1), 45–54, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(2008)134:1(45), 2008.

[doc_id=750]

[English]

The evolution of urban water management in ancient Greece, beginning in Crete during the early Minoan period, resulted in a variety of remarkable developments in both the mainland and islands of Greece. Important developments include the implementation of hygienic living standards, advanced hydraulic technologies for water transportation, constructions for flood and sediment control, and sustainable urban water management practices, which can be compared to modern day practices. The evolution of water management was also related to the socio-political conditions. During oligarchic periods the emphasis was on the construction of large-scale hydraulic projects, whereas in democratic periods the focus of water management was on sustainable small scale, safe and cost efficient management practices, and institutional arrangements related to both the private and the public sectors. Such practices and institutions are relevant even today, as the water related problems of modern societies are not very different from those in antiquity.

Full text is only available to the NTUA network due to copyright restrictions

PDF Additional material:

See also: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(2008)134:1(45)

Our works referenced by this work:

1. Th. Xanthopoulos, D. Christoulas, M. Mimikou, M. Aftias, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Flood protection of the Athens basin, Monthly Technical Review, 48, 50–53, 1996.
2. D. Koutsoyiannis, Urban water systems management: Remarks - questions - opinions, Water and Environment, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.24499.84006, Water Supply and Sewerage Company of Athens, 2000.
3. A. N. Angelakis, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Urban water engineering and management in ancient Greece, The Encyclopedia of Water Science, edited by B. A. Stewart and T. Howell, 999–1007, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.2644.2487, Dekker, New York, 2003.
4. D. Koutsoyiannis, and A. N. Angelakis, Hydrologic and hydraulic science and technology in ancient Greece, The Encyclopedia of Water Science, edited by B. A. Stewart and T. Howell, 415–417, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.1333.5282, Dekker, New York, 2003.
5. A. N. Angelakis, D. Koutsoyiannis, and G. Tchobanoglous, Urban wastewater and stormwater technologies in ancient Greece, Water Research, 39 (1), 210–220, doi:10.1016/j.watres.2004.08.033, 2005.
6. D. Koutsoyiannis, and A. N. Angelakis, Agricultural hydraulic works in ancient Greece, Encyclopedia of Water Science, Second Edition, edited by S. W. Trimble, 24–27, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.2582.8084, CRC Press, 2007.

Our works that reference this work:

1. L. W. Mays, D. Koutsoyiannis, and A. N. Angelakis, A brief history of urban water supply in antiquity, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 7 (1), 1–12, doi:10.2166/ws.2007.001, 2007.
2. N. Mamassis, and D. Koutsoyiannis, A web based information system for the inspection of the hydraulic works in Ancient Greece, Ancient Water Technologies, edited by L. W. Mays, 103–114, doi:10.1007/978-90-481-8632-7_6, Springer, Dordrecht, 2010.
3. D. Koutsoyiannis, Hurst-Kolmogorov dynamics and uncertainty, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 47 (3), 481–495, doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00543.x, 2011.
4. D. Koutsoyiannis, Scale of water resources development and sustainability: Small is beautiful, large is great, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 56 (4), 553–575, doi:10.1080/02626667.2011.579076, 2011.
5. N. Zarkadoulas, D. Koutsoyiannis, N. Mamassis, and A. N. Angelakis, A brief history of urban water management in ancient Greece, Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia, edited by A. N. Angelakis, L. W. Mays, D. Koutsoyiannis, and N. Mamassis, 10, 259–270, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4114.7127, IWA Publishing, London, 2012.
6. D. Koutsoyiannis, Reconciling hydrology with engineering, Hydrology Research, 45 (1), 2–22, doi:10.2166/nh.2013.092, 2014.
7. D. Koutsoyiannis, and A. Patrikiou, Water control in Ancient Greek cities, A History of Water: Water and Urbanization, edited by T. Tvedt and T. Oestigaard, 130–148, I.B. Tauris, London, 2014.
8. Y. Markonis, A. N. Angelakis, J. Christy, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Climatic variability and the evolution of water technologies in Crete, Hellas, Water History, 8 (2), 137–157, doi:10.1007/s12685-016-0159-9, 2016.

Works that cite this document: View on Google Scholar or ResearchGate

Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

1. #Angelakis, A.N., Y.M. Savvakis, and G. Charalampakis, Minoan aqueducts: A pioneering technology, Proc. 1st IWA International Symposium on Water and Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Iraklio, 423-429, 2006.
2. #Antoniou, G., R. Xarchakou and A.N. Angelakis, Water cistern systems in Greece from Minoan to Hellenistic period, Proc. 1st IWA International Symposium on Water and Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Iraklio, 457-462, 2006.
3. #Dialynas, E., A. Lyrintzis and A.N. Angelakis, Historical development of water supply in Iraklio city, Greece, Proc. 1st IWA International Symposium on Water and Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Iraklio, 671-676, 2006.
4. Angelakis, A.N., Y.M. Savvakis and G. Charalampakis, Aqueducts during the Minoan Era, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 7(1), 95-101, 2007.
5. Mays, L.W., A very brief history of hydraulic technology during antiquity, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 8 (5-6), 471-484, 2008.
6. Batterman, S., J. Eisenberg, R. Hardin, M.E. Kruk, M.C. Lemos, A. Michalak, B. Mukherjee, E. Renne, H. Stein, C. Watkins and M.L. Wilson, Sustainable control of water-related infectious diseases: a review and proposal for interdisciplinary health-based systems research, Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(7), 1023–1032, 2009.
7. Gikas, P., and G.Tchobanoglous, Sustainable use of water in the Aegean Islands, Journal of Environmental Management, 90(8), 2601-2611, 2009.
8. Gikas, P., and A.N.Angelakis, Water resources management in Crete and in the Aegean Islands, with emphasis on the utilization of non-conventional water sources, Desalination, 248 (1-3), 1049-1064, 2009.
9. #Mays, L. W., A brief history of water technology during antiquity: Before the Romans, In Ancient Water Technologies, edited by L. W. Mays, 1-28, Springer, Dordrecht, 2010.
10. #Mays, L. W., Lessons from the Ancients on water resources sustainability, In Ancient Water Technologies, edited by L. W. Mays, 217-239, Springer, Dordrecht, 2010.
11. #Sauvé, J.-M., Éditorial, L’eau et son droi, Conseil d'État, France, 2010.
12. Angelakis, A. N., and D. S. Spyridakis, A brief history of water supply and wastewater management in ancient Greece, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 10 (4), 618-628, 2010.
13. De Feo, G., P. Laureano, R. Drusiani and A. N. Angelakis, Water and wastewater management technologies through the centuries, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 10 (3), 337-349, 2010.
14. Sivakumar, B., Water crisis: From conflict to cooperation – an overview, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 56(4), 531-552, 2011.
15. Gorokhovich, Y., L. Mays and L. Ullmann, A survey of ancient Minoan water technologies, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 11 (4), 388-399, 2011.
16. Stergiouli, M. L., and K. Hadjibiros, The growing water imprint of Athens (Greece) throughout history, Regional Environmental Change, 12 (2), 337-345, 2012.
17. #Angelakis, A. N., E. G. Dialynas and V. Despotakis, Historical development of water supply technologies in Crete, Greece through centuries, Proceedings 3rd IWA Specialized Conference on Water & Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Istanbul-Turkey, 218-224, 2012.
18. #Angelakis, A. N., A. G. Lyrintzis and S. V. Spyridakis, Urban water and wastewater technologies in Minoan Crete, Greece, Proceedings 3rd IWA Specialized Conference on Water & Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Istanbul, Turkey, 208-214, 2012.
19. #Papacharalampou, C., V. Melfos and K. Voudouris, Water supply and related constructions since antiquity in Retziki (Pefka) of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece, Proceedings 3rd IWA Specialized Conference on Water & Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Istanbul, Turkey, 154-162, 2012.
20. #Parise, M., A. Marangella, P. Maranò, M. Sammarco and G. Sannicola, Ancient hydraulic systems for collection, transport, and storage of water in karst settings of Southern Italy, Proceedings 3rd IWA Specialized Conference on Water & Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Istanbul, Turkey, 73-80, 2012.
21. #Parise, M., Underground aqueducts: A first preliminary bibliography around the world, Proceedings 3rd IWA Specialized Conference on Water & Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Istanbul, Turkey, 65-72, 2012.
22. Siart, C., M. Ghilardi, M. Forbriger and K. Theodorakopoulou, Terrestrial laser scanning and electrical resistivity tomography as combined tools for the geoarchaeological study of the Kritsa-Latô dolines (Mirambello, Crete, Greece), Geomorphologie: Relief, Processus, Environnement, (1), 59-74, 2012.
23. #Mays, L. W., M. Sklivaniotis and A. N. Angelakis, Water for human consumption through history, Ch. 2 in Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia (A. N. Angelakis, L. W. Mays, D. Koutsoyiannis and N. Mamassis, eds.), 19-42, IWA Publishing, London, 2012.
24. #Voudouris, K., Diachronic evolution of water supply in the Eastern Mediterranean, Ch. 4 in Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia (A. N. Angelakis, L. W. Mays, D. Koutsoyiannis and N. Mamassis, eds.), 77-89, IWA Publishing, London, 2012.
25. #Angelakis, A. N., E. G. Dialynas and V. Despotakis, Evolution of water supply technologies through the centuries in Crete, Greece, Ch. 9 in Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia (A. N. Angelakis, L. W. Mays, D. Koutsoyiannis and N. Mamassis, eds.), 227-258, IWA Publishing, London, 2012.
26. #De Feo, G., P. Laureano, L. W. Mays and A. N. Angelakis, Water supply management technologies in the Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, Ch. 14 in Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia (A. N. Angelakis, L. W. Mays, D. Koutsoyiannis and N. Mamassis, eds.), 351-382, IWA Publishing, London, 2012.
27. #Mithen, S., Thirst for Water and Power in the Ancient World, 384 pp., Harvard University Press, 2012.
28. #Angelakis, A. N., Water supply and sewerage in Minoan Crete: lessons and legacies, Proceedings of the 2nd Joint Conference of EYE-EEDYP "Integrated Water Resources Management for Sustainable Development" (Ed.: P. Giannopoulos and A. Dimas), 509-518, Patras, Greece, 2012.
29. #Angelakis , A. N., G. De Feo , P. Laureano and A. Zourou, Minoan and Etruscan water and wastewater technologies: approaches and lessons learned, e-Proceedings of IWA Congress & Exhibition, Bussan, Korea, September 16-21, 2012.
30. #Hughes, J. D., Responses to natural disasters in the Greek and Roman world, Forces of Nature and Cultural Responses (Ed. K. Pfeifer and N. Pfeifer), 111-137, 10.1007/978-94-007-5000-5_7, Springer Netherlands, 2013.
31. Varela, A. R. and C. M. Manaia, Human health implications of clinically relevant bacteria in wastewater habitats, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20, (6), 3550-3569, 2013.
32. Bond, T., E. Roma, K. M. Foxon, M. R. Templetond and C. A. Buckley, Ancient water and sanitation systems-applicability for the contemporary urban developing world, Water Science and Technology, 67 (5), 935-941, 2013.
33. Angelakis , A. N., G. De Feo , P. Laureano and A. Zourou, Minoan and Etruscan hydro-technologies, Water, 5, 972-987, 10.3390/w5030972, 2013.
34. Angelakis, A.N., and S.V. Spyridakis, Major urban water and wastewater systems in Minoan Crete, Greece, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 13 (3), 564-573, 2013.
35. Parise, M., A. Marangella, P. Maranò, M. Sammarco and G. Sannicola, Collecting, transporting and storing water in karst settings of southern Italy: Some lessons learned from ancient hydraulic systems, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 13 (3), 674-682, 2013.
36. Katsifarakis,K. L., and I. Avgoloupis, A new approach to the description of a Babylonian hydraulic work by Herodotus, The Classical Quarterly, 63 (02), 888 – 891, 2013.
37. De Feo, G., A. N. Angelakis, G. P. Antoniou, F. El-Gohary, B. Haut, C. W. Passchier and X. Y. Zheng, Historical and technical notes on aqueducts from prehistoric to medieval times, Water, 5, 1996-2025, 2013.
38. #Hughes, J. D., Environmental Problems of the Greeks and Romans: Ecology in the Ancient Mediterranean, JHU Press, 2014.
39. da Silva Leal Veloso, N., and R. L. Rodrigues Mendes, Aproveitamento da Água da Chuva na Amazônia: Experiências nas Ilhas de Belém/PA, Revista Brasileira de Recursos Hídricos, 19 (1), 229-242, 2014.
40. #Angelakis, A. Ν., Evolution of Fountains through the Centuries in Crete, Hellas, IWA Regional Symposium on Water, Wastewater & Environment: Traditions & Culture (ed. by I. K. Kalavrouziotis and A. N. Angelakis), Patras, Greece, 591-604, International Water Association & Hellenic Open University, 2014.
41. #Sazakli, E., E. Sazaklie and M. Leotsinidis, Rainwater exploitation: from ancient Greeks to modern times, IWA Regional Symposium on Water, Wastewater & Environment: Traditions & Culture (ed. by I. K. Kalavrouziotis and A. N. Angelakis), Patras, Greece, 653-661, International Water Association & Hellenic Open University, 2014.
42. #Azina, P., and N. Kathijotes, Historical development of urban sanitation and wastewater management in Cyprus, IWA Regional Symposium on Water, Wastewater & Environment: Traditions & Culture (ed. by I. K. Kalavrouziotis and A. N. Angelakis), Patras, Greece, 871-879, International Water Association & Hellenic Open University, 2014.
43. Ilias, A., A. Panoras and A. Angelakis, Wastewater recycling in Greece: The case of Thessaloniki, Sustainability, 6 (5), 2876-2892, 2014.
44. De Feo, G., G. Antoniou, H. F. Fardin, F. El-Gohary X. Y. Zheng, I. Reklaityte, D.Butler, S. Yannopoulos and A. N. Angelakis, The historical development of sewers worldwide, Sustainability, 6 (6), 3936-3974, 2014.
45. Sarvan, D., Pravo navodu kao povijesno nasljede čovječanstva, Hrvatske Vode, 22 (88), 131-140, 2014.
46. #De Feo, G., G. P. Antoniou, L. W. Mays, W. Dragoni, H. F. Fardin, F. El-Gohary, P. Laureano, E. I. Kanetaki , X. Y. Zheng and A. N. Angelakis, Historical development of wastewater management, , Handbook of Engineering Hydrology - Environmental Hydrology and Water Management (ed. by S. Eslamian), Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 163-217, 2014.
47. Öziş, U., A. Atalay and Y. Özdemir, Hydraulic capacity of ancient water conveyance systems to Ephesus, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 14 (6), 1010-1017, 2014.
48. #Garnier, E., Strengthened resilience from historic experience. European societies confronted with hydrometeors in the sixteenth to twentieth centuries, Hydrometeorological Hazards: Interfacing Science and Policy, 1-25, 2014.
49. #Angelakis, A. N., E. Kavoulaki and E. G. Dialynas, Sanitation and wastewater technologies in Minoan Era, Evolution of Sanitation and Wastewater Technologies through the Centuries, ed. by A.N. Angelakis and J.B. Rose, IWA Publishing, London, 2014.
50. #Azina, P., and N. Kathijotes, The history of the development of urban sanitation and wastewater technologies in Cyprus, Evolution of Sanitation and Wastewater Technologies through the Centuries, ed. by A.N. Angelakis and J.B. Rose, 191-207, IWA Publishing, London, 2014.
51. Angelakis, A.N., and X.Y .Zheng, Evolution of water supply, sanitation, wastewater, and stormwater technologies globally, Water, 7 (2), 455-463, 2015.
52. #Mitchell, P.D., Sanitation, Latrines and Intestinal Parasites in Past Populations, Ashgate Publishing, 1-278, 2015.

Tagged under: Ancient technology, Course bibliography: Water Resources Management, Hydrosystems, Papers initially rejected