Maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System for the management of the Athens water resource system
Duration: October 2008–November 2011
Budget: €72 000
Project director: N. Mamassis
Principal investigator: D. Koutsoyiannis
This research project includes the maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System that developed by NTUA for EYDAP in the framework of the research project “Updating of the supervision and management of the water resources’ system for the water supply of the Athens’ metropolitan area”. The project is consisted of the following parts: (a) Upgrading of the Data Base, (b)Upgrading and extension of hydrometeorological network, (c) upgrading of the hydrometeorological data process software, (d) upgrading and extension of the Hydronomeas software, (e) hydrological data analysis and (f) support to the preparation of the annual master plans
G. Kochilakis, D. Poursanidis, N. Chrysoulakis, V. Varella, V. Kotroni, G. Eftychidis, K. Lagouvardos, C. Papathanasiou, G. Karavokiros, M. Aivazoglou, C. Makropoulos, and M. Mimikou, FLIRE DSS: A web tool for the management of floods and wildfires in urban and periurban areas, Open Geosciences, 8, 711–727, doi:10.1515/geo-2016-0068, 2016.
A web-based Decision Support System, named FLIRE DSS, for combined forest fire control and planning as well as flood risk management, has been developed and is presented in this paper. State of the art tools and models have been used in order to enable Civil Protection agencies and local stakeholders to take advantage of the web based DSS without the need of local installation of complex software and their maintenance. Civil protection agencies can predict the behavior of a fire event using real time data and in such a way plan its efficient elimination. Also, during dry periods, agencies can implement “what-if” scenarios for areas that are prone to fire and thus have available plans for forest fire management in case such scenarios occur. Flood services include flood maps and flood-related warnings and become available to relevant authorities for visualization and further analysis on a daily basis. When flood warnings are issued, relevant authorities may proceed to efficient evacuation planning for the areas that are likely to flood and thus save human lives. Real-time weather data from ground stations provide the necessary inputs for the calculation of the fire model in real-time, and a high resolution weather forecast grid supports flood modeling as well as the development of “what-if” scenarios for the fire modeling. All these can be accessed by various computer sources including PC, laptop, Smartphone and tablet either by normal network connection or by using 3G and 4G cellular network. The latter is important for the accessibility of the FLIRE DSS during firefighting or rescue operations during flood events. All these methods and tools provide the end users with the necessary information to design an operational plan for the elimination of the fire events and the efficient management of the flood events in almost real time. Concluding, the FLIRE DSS can be easily transferred to other areas with similar characteristics due to its robust architecture and its flexibility.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1766/1/documents/FLIRE.pdf (1400 KB)
G. Kochilakis, D. Poursanidis, N. Chrysoulakis, V. Varella, V. Kotroni, G. Eftychidis, K. Lagouvardos, C. Papathanasiou, G. Karavokiros, M. Aivazoglou, C. Makropoulos, and M. Mimikou, A web based DSS for the management of floods and wildfires (FLIRE) in urban and periurban areas, Environmental Modelling and Software, 86, 111–115, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.09.016, 2016.
The FLIRE DSS is a web-based Decision Support System for the combined forest and flood risk management and planning. State of the art tools and models have been used in order to enable Civil Protection agencies and local stakeholders to take advantage of web based DSS with no need of local complex infrastructure and maintenance. Civil protection agencies can predict the behavior of a fire event using real time data and in that way to plan its efficient elimination. Also, they can implement “what-if” scenarios for areas prone to fire and thus develop plans for forest fire management. Flood services include flood maps and flood-related warnings; these become available to relevant authorities for visualization and further analysis on a daily basis. Real time weather data from ground stations provide the necessary inputs for the calculation of the fire model in real time and a high resolution weather forecast grid support flood modeling and “what-if” scenarios for the fire modeling. The innovations of the FLIRE DSS are the use of common Earth Observation (EO) data as the backbone of the system to produce data for the support of fire and flood models, the common use of weather related information, the distributed architecture of the system and the web-based access of it with no need for installation of dedicated software. All these can be accessed by all means of computer sources like PC, laptop, Smartphone and tablet either by normal network connection or by using 3G and 4G cellular network. The latter is important for the accessibility of the FLIRE DSS during firefighting or rescue operations during flood events. FLIRE DSS can be easily transferred to other areas with similar characteristics due to its robust architecture and its flexibility.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1764/1/documents/FLIRE_paper.pdf (730 KB)
C. Papathanasiou, D. Serbis, and N. Mamassis, Flood mitigation at the downstream areas of a transboundary river, Water Utility Journal, 3, 33–42, 2013.
Floods in the basin of the Ardas river, a transboundary river that has its springs in Bulgaria and its outlet in Greece, have often created havoc and caused millions of damage, especially in downstream Greek areas, which repeatedly receive unregulated flow from upstream dams. More specifically, the Ardas river, a tributary of the Evros river, flows for 241 km in Bulgaria and for only 49 km in Greece and its catchment stretches for 5.200 km2 (94% of the total area) in Bulgaria and for 350 km2 (6% of the total area) in Greece. Three large dams along the river have been constructed in Bulgaria (Kardzhaly, Studen Kladenets and Ivaylovgrad), the last one, Ivaylovgrad dam, being in short distance (approx. 15 km) from the transnational borders. During heavy rain, excessive flow from Ivaylovgrad dam is often released downstream, in order to relieve the reservoir that is kept at maximum level for energy production reasons. As a result, the downstream areas, also affected by the same heavy rain events, need to regulate large flows, often with inadequate response time and relevant means. The present study describes an approach to estimate flood water levels in the Greek territory, caused by both intense rain events and increased releases from the upstream dam. For this purpose the study area was divided into three sub-basins and the corresponding flood volumes were calculated using several methodologies. Given the fact that downstream areas are proved to be in high risk in terms of flooding, a series of structural and non-structural measures for the downstream area is examined and the paper concludes with an approach towards the confrontation and mitigation of flood effects in transboundary river basins.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1429/1/documents/WUJ_2013_05_04.pdf (635 KB)
D. Serbis, C. Papathanasiou, and N. Mamassis, Irrigation challenges in NW Greece-Perspectives and solutions for flood prone areas, 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2015), Global Network on Environmental Science and Technology, University of the Aegean, 2015.
Multiple water needs in rural areas together with poor water resources management are often posing serious threats to the environment and can cause rapid depletion of water resources. Irrigation, an activity that accounts for 44% of total water use in Europe, a share that can reach up to 80% in parts of southern Europe, is significantly affected by water scarcity with far reaching social, economic, environmental and demographic impacts. In many rural areas excessive groundwater use for irrigation in conjunction with obsolete water practices are among the key factors responsible for the depletion of water resources. Significant water losses also occur through outdated irrigation networks and structural deficiencies on water conveyors. Moreover, environmental hazards are intensified in agricultural areas lacking appropriate flood mitigation structures. In these cases, during flood events, fertilizers and other contaminants are easily spread over large areas posing permanent treats to ecosystems and natural resources. This paper presents a holistic water resources management approach towards adequate flood protection of rural areas, while at the same time reversing the depletion of overexploited local underground resources. More specifically, a series of technical works including two interconnected reservoirs and a number of small detention ponds are proposed to protect an irrigated area of 1.900 ha which is frequently devastated by floods. Water from the detention reservoirs will also be used to cover irrigation needs of the cultivated areas, which currently overuse underground resources. At the same time, reservoir water will be used to irrigate an adjacent area of extra 1.900 ha, with no other available water recourses, thus extending arable land to 3.600 ha in total. It is also proposed to exploit the considerable height difference (275 m) between the two reservoirs for electricity production. Stopping water pumping for irrigation will return groundwater table to its natural level, a process which is expected to take several years to complete. A list of other structural and non-structural measures is also proposed to further improve water management in the area.
C. Makropoulos, E. Safiolea, A. Efstratiadis, E. Oikonomidou, V. Kaffes, C. Papathanasiou, and M. Mimikou, Multi-reservoir management with Open-MI, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Chania, A, 788–795, Department of Environmental Studies, University of the Aegean, 2009.
The paper applies advanced integrated modeling techniques supported by the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI) standard to optimize water resources allocation for a rapidly growing rural area in Greece. Water uses in a rural basin are significantly affected by urban growth, changes in agricultural practices and industrial needs. This results in a complex water system, whose optimal configuration requires the combination of structural and non-structural approaches. Furthermore, the reliable operation of the water system may be placed under significant stress due to increasing trends of extreme events associated with potential climatic changes which affect freshwater availability. To evaluate and improve the system’s operation, a series of specialized models need to be linked and exchange data at runtime. The approach presented in this paper, used OpenMI (an open source, royalty free standard) to facilitate the direct, timestep-by-timestep, communication of models from different providers, written in different coding languages, with different spatial and temporal resolutions. The models were “migrated” to OpenMI and were run simultaneously, linked (exchanging data) at nodes specified by the modeler. The resulting integrated modeling system is tested in the Thessaly Water District, Greece, where growing water demand has often become an issue of conflict between stakeholders. As an example of the type of problems typically faced in the region, a system of two reservoirs receiving flows from different subbassins is designed to satisfy the water demand of the study area. The principal reservoir, the Smokovo reservoir, is a real reservoir, currently in operation, situated on the confluence of two streams, tributaries of the Pinios river. Downstream of Smokovo reservoir, the river flow has to satisfy a series of needs such as ecological flows, increasing irrigation needs, increasing potable water demand of the local municipalities, and production of electricity. The second reservoir introduced in this study is the potential rehabilitation of the Lake Xyniada, as a means to improve the overall resilience of the water system to extreme events and possibly decrease the costs (ecological-economic) of water consumption in the area. The integrated modeling system comprises of three OpenMI-compliant model components: a reservoir model (RMM), a hydraulic model with supporting rainfall-runoff modules (MIKE-11) and a multi-reservoir operational rule component. The models were set-up, calibrated, and linked to exchange data at runtime using data provided by the Public Power Corporation and the Ministry of Environment. The modeling system was run under different operating rules to assess the reliability of the combined reservoir system and compare it with the one-reservoir existing solution against different stakeholder objectives. The paper suggests indicative solutions from the preliminary analysis and concludes with the identification of key future challenges and ideas for further development.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/932/1/documents/openMI_chania.pdf (451 KB)
Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):
|1.||Fotopoulos, F., C. Makropoulos C., and M.A Mimikou, Flood forecasting in transboundary catchments using the Open Modeling Interface, Environmental Modelling and Software, 25(12), 1640-1649, 2010.|
|2.||#Moe, S. J., L. J. Barkved, M. Blind, C.. Makropoulos, M. Vurro, S. Ekstrand, J. Rocha, M. Mimikou, and M. J. Ulstein, How can climate change be incorporated in river basin management plans under the WFD? Report from the EurAqua Conference 2008, 27 p., Norwegian Institute for Water Research, 2010.|
D. Serbis, C. Papathanasiou, and N. Mamassis, Mitigating flooding in a typical urban area in North Western Attica in Greece, Conference on Changing Cities: Spatial Design, Landscape and Socio-economic Dimensions, Porto Heli, Peloponnese, Greece, June 2015.
Frequent floods in urban areas can pose threats to human lives and cause extensive devastation with long lasting consequences on properties and the environment. The frequency and impact of urban flooding are intensified by extended urbanization and the consequent land use change. More specifically, the expansion of impermeable areas in urban zones can cause rainfall events of low return period to produce the same or even more intense socioeconomic and environmental impact compared to rainfall events of high return period. For this reason, interventions in urban zones that are expected to deteriorate rainwater drainage conditions need to be accompanied by appropriate measures both structural and non-structural that ensure flood mitigation on the entire hydrological basin. In the absence of such measures which is usually the case, additional approaches to minimize flood impact need to be adopted. Flood effects are also intensified by poor urban design and inequitable development practices leading to greater water volumes that have to be managed in shorter times. A typical urban area that suffers from frequent flooding is the Community of Magoula, a community of 5000 habitats, located 21 km North West of Athens (Greece). The construction of a modern highway (Attiki Odos) that crosses the Community provided adequate flood protection locally, but was not accompanied by appropriate structural and non-structural measures to protect the entire basin. This paper presents an approach to expand insufficient infrastructure in order to provide adequate flood protection to the entire urban area of the Community of Magoula. In particular, the existing drainage pipe network of the area is expanded over a critical net of urbanised zones with low permeability, in order to mitigate flood events. The design of the proposed works was evaluated against both their capacity to successfully drain the flooded areas and the adequacy of the existing infrastructure to accommodate the incoming flow. The paper concludes with a set of complementary BMPs and non-structural measures that aim to ameliorate and mitigate flash flooding effects.
D. Serbis, C. Papathanasiou, and N. Mamassis, Flood mitigation at the downstream areas of a transboundary river, 8th International Conference "Water Resources Management in an Interdisciplinary and Changing Context", Porto, Portugal, 10 pages, European Water Resources Association, 2013.
Floods in the basin of Ardas river, a transboundary river that crosses Bulgaria and has its outlet in Greece, have often created havoc and caused millions of damage, especially in downstream Greek areas, which also repeatedly receive unregulated flow from upstream dams. More specifically, Ardas River, a tributary of Evros river, flows for 214 km in Bulgaria and for only 39 km in Greece and its catchment stretches for 5 250 km2 (94% of the total area) in Bulgaria and for 350 km2 (6% of the total area) in Greece. Three large dams along the river have been constructed in Bulgaria (Kardzhaly, Studen Kladenets and Ivaylovgrad), the last one, Ivaylovgrad dam, in short distance (approx. 15 km) from the transnational borders. During heavy rain, excessive flow from the Ivaylovgrad dam is often released downstream, in order to relieve the reservoir that is kept at maximum level for energy production reasons. As a result, the downstream areas, also affected by the same heavy rain events, need to regulate large flows, often with inadequate response time and relevant means. The present study presents an approach to estimate flood water levels in the Greek territory, caused by both rain events and releases from the upstream dam. For this purpose the study area was divided into three subbasins and the corresponding flood volumes were calculated using several methodologies. The paper concludes with a series of structural and non-structural measures that are suggested to be taken to confront and mitigate flood effects.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1372/1/documents/paper_ser.pdf (953 KB)
N. Mamassis, C. Papathanasiou, and M. Mimikou, Hydrometeorological measurements network in Athens area (METEONET), The NTUA in the lead of research and technology , Athens, 2007, (in press).
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/876/1/documents/paper_meteonet.pdf (427 KB)
E. Safiolea, A. Efstratiadis, S. Kozanis, I. Liagouris, and C. Papathanasiou, Integrated modelling of a River-Reservoir system using OpenMI, OpenMI-LIFE Pinios Workshop, Volos, 2009.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/920/1/documents/Moore_Pinios_Workshop_part1.pdf (2349 KB)