Civil Engineer, MSc., PhD candidate
Maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System for the management of the Athens water resource system
Duration: October 2008–November 2011
Budget: €72 000
Project director: N. Mamassis
Principal investigator: D. Koutsoyiannis
This research project includes the maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System that developed by NTUA for EYDAP in the framework of the research project “Updating of the supervision and management of the water resources’ system for the water supply of the Athens’ metropolitan area”. The project is consisted of the following parts: (a) Upgrading of the Data Base, (b)Upgrading and extension of hydrometeorological network, (c) upgrading of the hydrometeorological data process software, (d) upgrading and extension of the Hydronomeas software, (e) hydrological data analysis and (f) support to the preparation of the annual master plans
E. Dodangeh, K. Shahedi, K. Solaimani, and P. Kossieris, Usability of the BLRP model for hydrological applications in arid and semi-arid regions with limited precipitation data, Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2017.
In this study, Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) is used to investigate rainfall-runoff process in Taleghan watershed, northern Iran. Despite the high accuracy of the model, the lack of rainfall data at short time scales (hour and less than hour) restricted implementation of the model especially for long time simulations. Some studies use simple division for daily rainfall disaggregation into the hourly values to provide data requirements of HSPF model. In simple division, each rainfall event is divided into 24 pulse stochastically and the peak flows may not properly being simulated due to the lower rainfall intensities. In this study, random parameter Bartlett–Lewis rectangular pulse (BLRP) model was implemented to disaggregate daily rainfall time series into the hourly values and the results compared with that of simple division. In BLRP model, parameters of the model calibrated against the 1, 24 and 48 h mean, variance, lag1 auto covariance and proportion dry of observed rainfall. The calibrated model was then implemented to disaggregate daily rainfall data into the hourly values. To compare two disaggregation approaches, daily stream flow simulation by HSPF model is initialized in 2 scenarios by applying the hourly rainfall data resulted from two disaggregation methods. The results indicated that while using the simple division method leads to the underestimation of peak flows, using the BLRP model improved peak flow simulations. This study indicated usability of the BLRP model for rainfall disaggregation in arid and semi-arid regions with limited fine scale precipitation data availability.
P. Kossieris, C. Makropoulos, E. Creaco, L. Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, and D. Savic, Assessing the applicability of the Bartlett-Lewis model in simulating residential water demands, Procedia Engineering, 154, 123–131, 2016.
This paper presents the set-up and application of the Bartlett-Lewis clustering mechanism to simulate residential water demand at fine, i.e. sub-hourly, time scales. Two different variants of the model, i.e., the original and the random-parameter model, are examined. The models are assessed in terms of preserving the main statistical characteristics and temporal properties of demand series at a range of fine time scales, i.e., from 1-min up to 15-min. The comparison against the typical Poisson rectangular pulse model showed that clustering mechanism enables a better reproduction of demand characteristics at levels of aggregation other than those used in the fitting procedure.
E. Creaco, P. Kossieris, L. Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, C. Makropoulos, Z. Kapelan, and D. Savic, Parameterizing residential water demand pulse models through smart meter readings, Environmental Modelling and Software, 80, 33–40, 2016.
This paper proposes a method for parameterizing the Poisson models for residential water demand pulse generation, which consider the dependence of pulse duration and intensity. The method can be applied to consumption data collected in households through smart metering technologies. It is based on numerically searching for the model parameter values associated with pulse frequencies, durations and intensities, which lead to preservation of the mean demand volume and of the cumulative trend of demand volumes, at various time aggregation scales at the same time. The method is applied to various case studies, by using two time aggregation scales for demand volumes, i.e. fine aggregation scale (1 min or 15 min) and coarse aggregation scale (1 day). The fine scale coincides with the time resolution for reading acquisition through smart metering whereas the coarse scale is obtained by aggregating the consumption values recorded at the fine scale. Results show that the parameterization method presented makes the Poisson model effective at reproducing the measured demand volumes aggregated at both time scales. Consistency of the pulses improves as the fine scale resolution increases.
P. Kossieris, C. Makropoulos, C. Onof, and D. Koutsoyiannis, A rainfall disaggregation scheme for sub-hourly time scales: Coupling a Bartlett-Lewis based model with adjusting procedures, Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.07.015, 2016.
Many hydrological applications, such as flood studies, require the use of long rainfall data at fine time scales varying from daily down to 1 minute time step. However, in the real world there is limited availability of data at sub-hourly scales. To cope with this issue, stochastic disaggregation techniques are typically employed to produce possible, statistically consistent, rainfall events that aggregate up to the field data collected at coarser scales. A methodology for the stochastic disaggregation of rainfall at fine time scales was recently introduced, combining the Bartlett-Lewis process to generate rainfall events along with adjusting procedures to modify the lower-level variables (i.e., hourly) so as to be consistent with the higher-level one (i.e., daily). In the present paper, we extend the aforementioned scheme, initially designed and tested for the disaggregation of daily rainfall into hourly depths, for any sub-hourly time scale. In addition, we take advantage of the recent developments in Poisson-cluster processes incorporating in the methodology a Bartlett-Lewis model variant that introduces dependence between cell intensity and duration in order to capture the variability of rainfall at sub-hourly time scales. The disaggregation scheme is implemented in an R package, named HyetosMinute, to support disaggregation from daily down to 1-minute time scale. The applicability of the methodology was assessed on a 5-minute rainfall records collected in Bochum, Germany, comparing the performance of the above mentioned model variant against the original Bartlett-Lewis process (non-random with 5 parameters). The analysis shows that the disaggregation process reproduces adequately the most important statistical characteristics of rainfall at wide range of time scales, while the introduction of the model with dependent intensity-duration results in a better performance in terms of skewness, rainfall extremes and dry proportions.
Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):
|1.||Shrestha, A., M. S. Babel, S. Weesakul, and Z. Vojinovic, Developing intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves under climate change uncertainty: The case of Bangkok, Thailand, Water, 9(2), 145, doi:10.3390/w9020145, 2017.|
I. Tsoukalas, P. Kossieris, A. Efstratiadis, and C. Makropoulos, Surrogate-enhanced evolutionary annealing simplex algorithm for effective and efficient optimization of water resources problems on a budget, Environmental Modelling and Software, 77, 122–142, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2015.12.008, 2016.
In water resources optimization problems, the objective function usually presumes to first run a simulation model and then evaluate its outputs. However, long simulation times may pose significant barriers to the procedure. Often, to obtain a solution within a reasonable time, the user has to substantially restrict the allowable number of function evaluations, thus terminating the search much earlier than required. A promising strategy to address these shortcomings is the use of surrogate modeling techniques. Here we introduce the Surrogate-Enhanced Evolutionary Annealing-Simplex (SEEAS) algorithm that couples the strengths of surrogate modeling with the effectiveness and efficiency of the evolutionary annealing-simplex method. SEEAS combines three different optimization approaches (evolutionary search, simulated annealing, downhill simplex). Its performance is benchmarked against other surrogate-assisted algorithms in several test functions and two water resources applications (model calibration, reservoir management). Results reveal the significant potential of using SEEAS in challenging optimization problems on a budget.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1587/2/documents/SEEAS_paper.pdf (4310 KB)
Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):
|1.||Dariane , A. B., and M. M. Javadianzadeh, Towards an efficient rainfall–runoff model through partitioning scheme, Water, 8, 63; doi:10.3390/w8020063, 2016.|
|2.||Yaseen, Z. M., O. Jaafar, R. C. Deo, O. Kisi, J. Adamowski, J. Quilty, and A. El-Shafie, Boost stream-flow forecasting model with extreme learning machine data-driven: A case study in a semi-arid region in Iraq, Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.09.035, 2016.|
|3.||Müller, R., and N. Schütze, Multi-objective optimization of multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems under high reliability constraints, Environmental Earth Sciences, 75:1278, doi:10.1007/s12665-016-6076-5, 2016.|
|4.||#Christelis, V., V. Bellos, and G. Tsakiris, Employing surrogate modelling for the calibration of a 2D flood simulation model, Sustainable Hydraulics in the Era of Global Change: Proceedings of the 4th IAHR Europe Congress (Liege, Belgium, 27-29 July 2016), A. S. Erpicum, M. Pirotton, B. Dewals, P. Archambeau (editors), CRC Press, 2016.|
P. Kossieris, S. Kozanis, A. Hashmi, E. Katsiri, L. Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, R. Farmani, C. Makropoulos, and D. Savic, A web-based platform for water efficient households, Procedia Engineering, 89, 1128–1135, 2014.
The advent of ICT services on water sector offers new perspective towards sustainable water management. This paper presents an innovative web-based platform, targeting primarily the household end-users. The platform enables consumers to monitor and control, on real-time basis, the water and energy consumption of their household providing valuable information and feedback. At the same time, the platform further supports end-users to modify and improve their consumption profile via an interactive educational process that comprises a variety of online tools and applications. This paper discusses the rationale, structure and technologies upon which the platform has been developed and presents an early prototype of the various tools, applications and facilities.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1590/1/documents/kossieris_procedia2014.pdf (1131 KB)
P. Kossieris, Panayiotakis, K. Tzouka, E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, An e-Learning approach for improving household water efficiency, Procedia Engineering, WDSA 2014, Bari, Italy, Water Distribution Systems Analysis, 2014.
This paper, presents the development of an e-learning platform, associated with smart metering infrastructure, developed in Moodle. The platform aims to support further householders to improve the water efficiency of their household by understanding their current consumption and identifying practices, technologies that can save water. The platform is built around an interactive, multi-stage, educational process, which begins with a preparatory ("Exposing") stage in which the users receive useful information and feedback about their "water identity", continuous through a self-assessment ("Understanding") stage and finally provides (customized) smart and cost-effective tips and suggestions ("Acting" stage). This paper presents the components of the platform, including, inter alia, FAQ's, quizzes, advanced water calculators and customized tips.
Y. Moustakis, P. Kossieris, I. Tsoukalas, and A. Efstratiadis, Quasi-continuous stochastic simulation framework for flood modelling, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2017, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 19, Vienna, 19, EGU2017-534, European Geosciences Union, 2017.
Typically, flood modelling in the context of everyday engineering practices is addressed through event-based deterministic tools, e.g., the well-known SCS-CN method. A major shortcoming of such approaches is the ignorance of uncertainty, which is associated with the variability of soil moisture conditions and the variability of rainfall during the storm event. In event-based modeling, the sole expression of uncertainty is the return period of the design storm, which is assumed to represent the acceptable risk of all output quantities (flood volume, peak discharge, etc.). On the other hand, the varying antecedent soil moisture conditions across the basin are represented by means of scenarios (e.g., the three AMC types by SCS), while the temporal distribution of rainfall is represented through standard deterministic patterns (e.g., the alternative blocks method). In order to address these major inconsistencies,simultaneously preserving the simplicity and parsimony of the SCS-CN method, we have developed a quasi-continuous stochastic simulation approach, comprising the following steps: (1) generation of synthetic daily rainfall time series; (2) update of potential maximum soil moisture retention, on the basis of accumulated five-day rainfall; (3) estimation of daily runoff through the SCS-CN formula, using as inputs the daily rainfall and the updated value of soil moisture retention;(4) selection of extreme events and application of the standard SCS-CN procedure for each specific event, on the basis of synthetic rainfall. This scheme requires the use of two stochastic modelling components, namely the CastaliaR model, for the generation of synthetic daily data, and the HyetosMinute model, for the disaggregation of daily rainfall to finer temporal scales. Outcomes of this approach are a large number of synthetic flood events, allowing for expressing the design variables in statistical terms and thus properly evaluating the flood risk.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1680/2/documents/FINAL_Moustakis_EGU2017.pdf (1492 KB)
P. Kossieris, A. Efstratiadis, I. Tsoukalas, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Assessing the performance of Bartlett-Lewis model on the simulation of Athens rainfall, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, Vienna, EGU2015-8983, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.14371.25120, European Geosciences Union, 2015.
Many hydrological applications require the use of long rainfall data across a wide range of fine time scales. To meet this necessity, stochastic approaches are usually employed for the generation of large number of rainfall events, following a Monte Carlo approach. In this framework, Bartlett-Lewis model (BL) is a key representative from the family of Poisson-cluster stochastic processes. Here, we examine the performance of three different versions of BL model, with number of parameters varying from 5 up to 7, in representing the characteristics of convective and frontal rainfall of Athens (Greece). Apart from the typical statistical characteristics that are explicitly preserved by the stochastic model (mean, variance, lag-1 autocorrelation, probability dry), we also attempt to preserve the statistical distribution of annual rainfall maxima, as well as two important temporal properties of the observed storm events, i.e. the duration of storms and the time distance between subsequent events. This task is not straightforward, given that these characteristics are not described in the theoretical equations of the model, but they should be empirically evaluated on the basis of synthetic data. The analysis is conducted on monthly basis and for multiple time scales, i.e. from hourly to daily. Further to that, we focus on the formulation of the calibration problem, by assessing the performance of the BL model against issues such as choice of statistics to preserve, time scales, distance metrics, etc.
A. Koukouvinos, D. Nikolopoulos, A. Efstratiadis, A. Tegos, E. Rozos, S.M. Papalexiou, P. Dimitriadis, Y. Markonis, P. Kossieris, H. Tyralis, G. Karakatsanis, K. Tzouka, A. Christofides, G. Karavokiros, A. Siskos, N. Mamassis, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Integrated water and renewable energy management: the Acheloos-Peneios region case study, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, Vienna, EGU2015-4912, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.17726.69440, European Geosciences Union, 2015.
Within the ongoing research project “Combined Renewable Systems for Sustainable Energy Development” (CRESSENDO), we have developed a novel stochastic simulation framework for optimal planning and management of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems, in which hydropower plays the dominant role. The methodology and associated computer tools are tested in two major adjacent river basins in Greece (Acheloos, Peneios) extending over 15 500 km2 (12% of Greek territory). River Acheloos is characterized by very high runoff and holds ~40% of the installed hydropower capacity of Greece. On the other hand, the Thessaly plain drained by Peneios – a key agricultural region for the national economy – usually suffers from water scarcity and systematic environmental degradation. The two basins are interconnected through diversion projects, existing and planned, thus formulating a unique large-scale hydrosystem whose future has been the subject of a great controversy. The study area is viewed as a hypothetically closed, energy-autonomous, system, in order to evaluate the perspectives for sustainable development of its water and energy resources. In this context we seek an efficient configuration of the necessary hydraulic and renewable energy projects through integrated modelling of the water and energy balance. We investigate several scenarios of energy demand for domestic, industrial and agricultural use, assuming that part of the demand is fulfilled via wind and solar energy, while the excess or deficit of energy is regulated through large hydroelectric works that are equipped with pumping storage facilities. The overall goal is to examine under which conditions a fully renewable energy system can be technically and economically viable for such large spatial scale.
A. Efstratiadis, I. Tsoukalas, P. Kossieris, G. Karavokiros, A. Christofides, A. Siskos, N. Mamassis, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Computational issues in complex water-energy optimization problems: Time scales, parameterizations, objectives and algorithms, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, Vienna, EGU2015-5121, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.11015.80802, European Geosciences Union, 2015.
Modelling of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) is a challenging task, for which several open computational issues exist. HRES comprise typical components of hydrosystems (reservoirs, boreholes, conveyance networks, hydropower stations, pumps, water demand nodes, etc.), which are dynamically linked with renewables (e.g., wind turbines, solar parks) and energy demand nodes. In such systems, apart from the well-known shortcomings of water resources modelling (nonlinear dynamics, unknown future inflows, large number of variables and constraints, conflicting criteria, etc.), additional complexities and uncertainties arise due to the introduction of energy components and associated fluxes. A major difficulty is the need for coupling two different temporal scales, given that in hydrosystem modeling, monthly simulation steps are typically adopted, yet for a faithful representation of the energy balance (i.e. energy production vs. demand) a much finer resolution (e.g. hourly) is required. Another drawback is the increase of control variables, constraints and objectives, due to the simultaneous modelling of the two parallel fluxes (i.e. water and energy) and their interactions. Finally, since the driving hydrometeorological processes of the integrated system are inherently uncertain, it is often essential to use synthetically generated input time series of large length, in order to assess the system performance in terms of reliability and risk, with satisfactory accuracy. To address these issues, we propose an effective and efficient modeling framework, key objectives of which are: (a) the substantial reduction of control variables, through parsimonious yet consistent parameterizations; (b) the substantial decrease of computational burden of simulation, by linearizing the combined water and energy allocation problem of each individual time step, and solve each local sub-problem through very fast linear network programming algorithms, and (c) the substantial decrease of the required number of function evaluations for detecting the optimal management policy, using an innovative, surrogate-assisted global optimization approach.
A. Drosou, P. Dimitriadis, A. Lykou, P. Kossieris, I. Tsoukalas, A. Efstratiadis, and N. Mamassis, Assessing and optimising flood control options along the Arachthos river floodplain (Epirus, Greece), European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, Vienna, EGU2015-9148, European Geosciences Union, 2015.
We present a multi-criteria simulation-optimization framework for the optimal design and setting of flood protection structures along river banks. The methodology is tested in the lower course of the Arachthos River (Epirus, Greece), downstream of the hydroelectric dam of Pournari. The entire study area is very sensitive, particularly because the river crosses the urban area of Arta, which is located just after the dam. Moreover, extended agricultural areas that are crucial for the local economy are prone to floods. In the proposed methodology we investigate two conflicting criteria, i.e. the minimization of flood hazards (due to damages to urban infrastructures, crops, etc.) and the minimization of construction costs of the essential hydraulic structures (e.g. dikes). For the hydraulic simulation we examine two flood routing models, named 1D HEC-RAS and quasi-2D LISFLOOD, whereas the optimization is carried out through the Surrogate-Enhanced Evolutionary Annealing-Simplex (SE-EAS) algorithm that couples the strengths of surrogate modeling with the effectiveness and efficiency of the EAS method.
I. Tsoukalas, P. Kossieris, A. Efstratiadis, and C. Makropoulos, Handling time-expensive global optimization problems through the surrogate-enhanced evolutionary annealing-simplex algorithm, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, Vienna, EGU2015-5923, European Geosciences Union, 2015.
In water resources optimization problems, the calculation of the objective function usually presumes to first run a simulation model and then evaluate its outputs. In several cases, however, long simulation times may pose significant barriers to the optimization procedure. Often, to obtain a solution within a reasonable time, the user has to substantially restrict the allowable number of function evaluations, thus terminating the search much earlier than required by the problem’s complexity. A promising novel strategy to address these shortcomings is the use of surrogate modelling techniques within global optimization algorithms. Here we introduce the Surrogate-Enhanced Evolutionary Annealing-Simplex (SE-EAS) algorithm that couples the strengths of surrogate modelling with the effectiveness and efficiency of the EAS method. The algorithm combines three different optimization approaches (evolutionary search, simulated annealing and the downhill simplex search scheme), in which key decisions are partially guided by numerical approximations of the objective function. The performance of the proposed algorithm is benchmarked against other surrogate-assisted algorithms, in both theoretical and practical applications (i.e. test functions and hydrological calibration problems, respectively), within a limited budget of trials (from 100 to 1000). Results reveal the significant potential of using SE-EAS in challenging optimization problems, involving time-consuming simulations.
I. Pappa, Y. Dimakos, P. Dimas, P. Kossieris, P. Dimitriadis, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Spatial and temporal variability of wind speed and energy over Greece, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2014, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 16, Vienna, EGU2014-13591, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.11238.63048, European Geosciences Union, 2014.
To appraise the wind potential over Greece we analyse the main statistical properties of wind speed through time. To this end, we use 66 time series from 1932 to 2013 on daily and monthly time scale and examine the spatial variability of wind speed over Greece. To depict the main statistical behavior and potential of the wind over Greece, maps have been created illustrating the basic statistical characteristics of wind speed on monthly to annual time scale. We also examine time series of energy production from the currently developed system of key wind parks and we compare the theoretical potential with the actually produced energy. Finally, we explore a methodology to simulate wind energy production in a stochastic framework. In that context we generate hourly wind speed synthetic data using a modified Bartlett-Lewis model implemented in Hyetos. The results of our analysis offer an improved overall picture of wind speed variability over Greece and help us clarify to which extent Hyetos is applicable in the stochastic generation of wind speed time series.
P. Kossieris, A. Efstratiadis, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Coupling the strengths of optimization and simulation for calibrating Poisson cluster models, Facets of Uncertainty: 5th EGU Leonardo Conference – Hydrofractals 2013 – STAHY 2013, Kos Island, Greece, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.15223.21929, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 2013.
Many hydrological applications require use of rainfall data across a wide range of time scales. To simulate rainfall at fine time scales, stochastic approaches are usually enrolled. A leading representative is the Bartlett-Lewis model, which belongs to the family of Poisson-cluster processes that represent rainfall events. The usual approach of model calibration comprises the incorporation of the theoretical model equations in an objective function and the optimization of that function. However, it is obvious that this procedure is limited to the case that analytical equations exist for the modelled stochastic properties of the process. Yet such analytical equations cannot be derived for key characteristics such as skewness and parameters determining the distribution of extreme values. Here we present an innovative approach that remedies those weaknesses through the combined use of simulation and optimization. During model calibration, the model statistics are derived by Monte Carlo simulation, instead of theoretical equations. Various calibration criteria as well as statistical parameters are introduced aiming at more faithful representation of the rainfall process at different time scales. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated using a long data series from a rain gauge in Athens.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1388/1/documents/Kos_BartlettLewis_poster.pdf (1605 KB)
P. Kossieris, A. Efstratiadis, and D. Koutsoyiannis, The use of stochastic objective functions in water resource optimization problems, Facets of Uncertainty: 5th EGU Leonardo Conference – Hydrofractals 2013 – STAHY 2013, Kos Island, Greece, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.18578.66249, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 2013.
The hydrological and water resource problems are characterized by the presence of multiple sources of uncertainty. The implementation of Monte Carlo simulation techniques within powerful optimization methods are required, in order to handle such uncertainties. Here we examine the combined performance of those two powerful tools to a wide range of global optimization applications, which extend from mathematical problems to hydrological calibration problems. In all cases, uncertainty is explicitly considered in terms of stochastic objective functions. In particular, we test a number of benchmark functions to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of alternative optimization techniques. Moreover, we examine two real-world calibration problems, involving a lumped rainfall-runoff models and a stochastic disaggregation model. We investigate them with different calibration criteria and under different sources of uncertainty, in order to assess not only the robustness of the derived parameters but also the predictive capacity of the models.
Y. Markonis, P. Kossieris, A. Lykou, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Effects of Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age on the hydrology of Mediterranean region, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2012, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, Vienna, 12181, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.30565.19683, European Geosciences Union, 2012.
Medieval Warm Period (950 – 1250) and Little Ice Age (1450 – 1850) are the most recent periods that reflect the magnitude of natural climate variability. As their names suggest, the first one was characterized by higher temperatures and a generally moister climate, while the opposite happened during the second period. Although their existence is well documented for Northern Europe and North America, recent findings suggest strong evidence in lower latitudes as well. Here we analyze qualitatively the influence of these climatic fluctuations on the hydro-logical cycle all over the Mediterranean basin, highlighting the spatial characteristics of precipitation and runoff. We use both qualitative estimates from literature review in the field of paleoclimatology and statistical analysis of proxy data series. We investigate possible regional patterns and possible tele-connections with large scale atmospheric circulation phenomena such as North Atlantic Oscillation, Siberian High, African Sahel Rainfall and Indian Monsoon.
P. Kossieris, D. Koutsoyiannis, C. Onof, H. Tyralis, and A. Efstratiadis, HyetosR: An R package for temporal stochastic simulation of rainfall at fine time scales, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2012, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, Vienna, 11718, European Geosciences Union, 2012.
A complete software package for the temporal stochastic simulation of rainfall process at fine time scales is developed in the R programming environment. This includes several functions for sequential simulation or disaggregation. Specifically, it uses the Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulses rainfall model for rainfall generation and proven disaggregation techniques which adjust the finer scale (hourly) values in order to obtain the required coarser scale (daily) value, without affecting the stochastic structure implied by the model. Additionally, a repetition scheme is incorporated in order to improve the Bartlett-Lewis model performance without significant increase of computational time. Finally, the package includes an enhanced version of the evolutionary annealing-simplex optimization method for the estimation of Bartlett-Lewis parameters. Multiple calibration criteria are introduced, in order to reproduce the statistical characteristics of rainfall at various time scales. This upgraded version of the original HYETOS program (Koutsoyiannis, D., and Onof C., A computer program for temporal stochastic disaggregation using adjusting procedures, European Geophysical Society, 2000) operates on several modes and combinations thereof (depending on data availability), with many options and graphical capabilities. The package, under the name HyetosR, is available free in the CRAN package repository.
Software page: http://itia.ntua.gr/en/softinfo/3/
Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):
|1.||#Montesarchio, V., F. Napolitano, E. Ridolfi and L. Ubertini, A comparison of two rainfall disaggregation models, In Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics ICNAAM 2012: International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1479, 1796-1799, 2012.|
|2.||#Villani, V., L. Cattaneo, A. L. Zollo, and P. Mercogliano, Climate data processing with GIS support: Description of bias correction and temporal downscaling tools implemented in Clime software, Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (RMCC) Research Papers, RP0262, 2015.|
|3.||Förster, K., F. Hanzer, B. Winter, T. Marke, and U. Strasser, An open-source MEteoroLOgical observation time series DISaggregation Tool (MELODIST v0.1.1), Geoscientific Model Development, 9, 2315-2333, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-2315-2016, 2016.|
Y. Dialynas, P. Kossieris, K. Kyriakidis, A. Lykou, Y. Markonis, C. Pappas, S.M. Papalexiou, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Optimal infilling of missing values in hydrometeorological time series, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 12, Vienna, EGU2010-9702, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.23762.56005, European Geosciences Union, 2010.
Being a group of undergraduate students in the National Technical University of Athens, attending the course of Stochastic Methods in Water Resources, we study, in cooperation with our tutors, the infilling of missing values of hydrometeorological time series from measurements at neighbouring times. The literature provides a plethora of methods, most of which are reduced to a linear statistical interpolating relationship. Assuming that the underlying hydrometeorological process behaves like either a Markovian or a Hurst-Kolmogorov process we estimate the missing values using two techniques, i.e., (a) a local average (with equal weights) based on the optimal number of measurements referring to a number of forward and backward time steps, and (b) a weighted average using all available data. In each of the cases we determine the unknown quantities (the required number of neighbouring values or the sequence of weights) so as to minimize the estimation mean square error. The results of this investigation are easily applicable for infilling time series in real-world applications.
Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):
|1.||#Rianna, M., E. Ridolfi, L. Lorino, L. Alfonso, V. Montesarchio, G. Di Baldassarre, F. Russo and F. Napolitano, Definition of homogeneous regions through entropy theory, 3rd STAHY International Workshop on Statistical Methods for Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Tunis, Tunisia, 2012.|
P. Kossieris, Develpment of a computer system for one-dimensional stochastic disaggragation of daily rainfall to hourly, 39 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, January 2012.
Presentation within undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources".
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1194/1/documents/StochMethodsKossieris2012.pdf (1391 KB)
P. Kossieris, Adaptation of evolutionary annealing-simplex algorithm for optimization of stochastic objective functions in water resource problems, Postgraduate Thesis, 209 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, December 2013.
Water resource problems are characterized by the presence of multiple sources of uncertainty. The implementation of Monte Carlo simulation techniques within powerful optimization methods is required, in order to handle these uncertainties. In the framework of the present thesis we investigate how the various sources of uncertainty affect the optimization procedure as well as the various models. Furthermore, we investigate a modified version of the evolutionary annealing-simplex method in global optimization applications, where uncertainty is explicitly considered in terms of stochastic objective functions. We evaluate the algorithm against several benchmark functions, as well as in the stochastic calibration of a lumped rainfall-runoff model (Zygos). In this context, we examine different calibration criteria and different sources of uncertainty, in order to assess not only the robustness of the derived parameters but also the predictive capacity of the models. As one other problem that requires the combined use of optimization and simulation, we examine the applicability of a widely used rainfall model for the case of Athens. Taking advantage of the simulation and optimization functionalities of HyetosR package, we evaluate the performance of two versions of Bartlett-Lewis model in representing the convective and frontal rainfall of Athens. We demonstrate that although these models reproduce the essential statistical characteristics of rainfall at the hourly as well as daily time scales (mean, variance, autocorrelation structure), they fail to preserve important temporal properties, such as the duration and time distance of rainfall events.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1419/1/documents/Master_thesis_PK_9GCRvkx.pdf (7185 KB)
P. Kossieris, A computer program for temporal stochastic disaggregation of a fine-scale rainfall, on R environment, Diploma thesis, 224 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, Athens, October 2011.
The study and analysis of hydrological variables require the development and use of special types of stochastic simulation models. These models are powerful tools for the stochastic simulation and forecast of hydro-meteorological processes. The intermittent character of rainfall time series on fine time scales justify the use of special simulation models. Among the successful model types are the point process models. This type of model has the important feature of representing rainfall in continuous time. According to these models, the rainfall events are simulated through the generation of clustered point or rectangular pulses. The Bartlett - Lewis model has the ability to reproduce important features of the rainfall field from hourly to daily scale and above. A combination of the Bartlett - Lewis rainfall model with proven disaggregation methodology, has proposed by Koutsoyiannis and Onof. This combination improves the ability of the Bartlett - Lewis model to simulate rainfall on fine time scales. In the framework of the thesis, the model is implemented in a computer program under the name HYETOS-R, on the R environment. The package HYETOS-R provides a complete tool for the simulation of rainfall process on fine time scales. The main purpose of the package is the disaggregation of daily to hourly rainfall depths. The package can work in several modes appropriate for operational use and model testing. Additionally, the user can produce synthetic time series by the Bartlett - Lewis model.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1185/1/documents/kossieris_diplom.pdf (5519 KB)
A. Efstratiadis, N. Mamassis, Y. Markonis, P. Kossieris, and H. Tyralis, Methodological framework for optimal planning and management of water and renewable energy resources, Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO), 154 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, April 2015.
We describe a stochastic simulation and optimization framework for hybrid renewable energy systems, based on effective coupling of different models. Initially, we explain the problem of combined management of water and energy resources, we introduce the main concepts and highlight the peculiarities of the problem, by means of methodology and computational implementation. Next is presented the general context, which is based on the combined use of an hourly simulation model for the renewables of a specific study area (wind and solar units), and a daily simulation model for the water resource system and the associated energy components. The models are fed by synthetic time series of hydrological inflows, wind velocity, solar radiation and electricity demand over the study area, for the generation of which are used appropriate stochastic schemes. The theoretical background of all models and related software systems is based on original methodologies or existing approaches that have been improved or generalized in the context of the research project.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1599/1/documents/Report_EE2.pdf (3766 KB)
D. Koutsoyiannis, S.M. Papalexiou, Y. Markonis, P. Dimitriadis, and P. Kossieris, Stochastic framework for uncertainty assessment of hydrometeorological procesess, Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO), 231 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, January 2015.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1589/1/documents/Report_EE1.pdf (14753 KB)
S.M. Papalexiou, and P. Kossieris, Theoretical documentation of model for synthetic hyetograph generation, DEUCALION – Assessment of flood flows in Greece under conditions of hydroclimatic variability: Development of physically-established conceptual-probabilistic framework and computational tools, Contractors: ETME: Peppas & Collaborators, Grafeio Mahera, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, National Observatory of Athens, 97 pages, May 2014.
The simulation of flood events necessitates the simulation of the rainfall over small times scales (e.g., smaller than the monthly scale). Nevertheless, rainfall modelling at small time scales is not simple as rainfall at these scales is an intermittent process and exhibits large variability in its statistical-stochastic characteristics. In this context, a flexible multivariate framework of stochastic simulation of rainfall was developed that can be applied to a large range of times scales. The proposed methodology is based on the cyclostationary multivariate autoregressive model of order 1 (PAR1), while the intermittency characteristics were reproduced using a novel transformation structure. The methodology was verified in the basin of Boeotikos Kephisos and it was verified that the model preserves satisfactorily the basic statistical characteristics of daily rainfall, including the probability dry, as well as the autocorrelation and the cross correlation structures. As an alternative for the generation of synthetic hyetographs the stochastic model known as the rectangular pulse Bartlett-Lewis model is presented. This model is widely accepted for the single-variate simulation of rainfall at fine time scales and in continuous time. The implementation was done in R programming environment and is available through the computer package HyetosR.
Related project: DEUCALION – Assessment of flood flows in Greece under conditions of hydroclimatic variability: Development of physically-established conceptual-probabilistic framework and computational tools
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1457/1/documents/Report_3_4.pdf (3599 KB)