D. Nikolopoulos, A. Ostfeld, E. Salomons, and C. Makropoulos, Resilience assessment of water quality sensor designs under cyber-physical attacks, Water, 13 (5), 647, doi:10.3390/w13050647, 2021.
Water distribution networks (WDNs) are critical infrastructure for the welfare of society. Due to their spatial extent and difficulties in deployment of security measures, they are vulnerable to threat scenarios that include the rising concern of cyber-physical attacks. To protect WDNs against different kinds of water contamination, it is customary to deploy water quality (WQ) monitoring sensors. Cyber-attacks on the monitoring system that employs WQ sensors combined with deliberate contamination events via backflow attacks can lead to severe disruptions to water delivery or even potentially fatal consequences for consumers. As such, the water sector is in immediate need of tools and methodologies that can support cyber-physical quality attack simulation and vulnerability assessment of the WQ monitoring system under such attacks. In this study we demonstrate a novel methodology to assess the resilience of placement schemes generated with the Threat Ensemble Vulnerability Assessment and Sensor Placement Optimization Tool (TEVA-SPOT) and evaluated under cyber-physical attacks simulated using the stress-testing platform RISKNOUGHT, using multidimensional metrics and resilience profile graphs. The results of this study show that some sensor designs are inherently more resilient than others, and this trait can be exploited in risk management practices.
Full text (4403 KB)
See also: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/13/5/647
Our works referenced by this work:
|1.||C. Makropoulos, D. Nikolopoulos, L. Palmen, S. Kools, A. Segrave, D. Vries, S. Koop, H. J. van Alphen, E. Vonk, P. van Thienen, E. Rozos, and G. Medema, A resilience assessment method for urban water systems, Urban Water Journal, 15 (4), 316–328, doi:10.1080/1573062X.2018.1457166, 2018.|
|2.||D. Nikolopoulos, C. Makropoulos, D. Kalogeras, K. Monokrousou, and I. Tsoukalas, Developing a stress-testing platform for cyber-physical water infrastructure, 2018 International Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Water Networks (CySWater), New Jersey, 9–11, doi:10.1109/CySWater.2018.00009, 2018.|
|3.||D. Nikolopoulos, H. J. van Alphen, D. Vries, L. Palmen, S. Koop, P. van Thienen, G. Medema, and C. Makropoulos, Tackling the “new normal”: A resilience assessment method applied to real-world urban water systems, Water, 11 (2), 330, doi:10.3390/w11020330, 2019.|
|4.||D. Nikolopoulos, G. Moraitis, D. Bouziotas, A. Lykou, G. Karavokiros, and C. Makropoulos, RISKNOUGHT: A cyber-physical stress-testing platform for water distribution networks, 11th World Congress on Water Resources and Environment “Managing Water Resources for a Sustainable Future”, Madrid, European Water Resources Association, 2019.|
|5.||C. Makropoulos, and D. Savic, Urban hydroinformatics: past, present and future, Water, 11 (10), 1959, doi:10.3390/w11101959, 2019.|
|6.||D. Nikolopoulos, G. Moraitis, D. Bouziotas, A. Lykou, G. Karavokiros, and C. Makropoulos, Cyber-physical stress-testing platform for water distribution networks, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 146 (7), 04020061, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001722, 2020.|