D. Koutsoyiannis, A power-law approximation of the turbulent flow friction factor useful for the design and simulation of urban water networks, *Urban Water Journal*, 5 (2), 117–115, 2008.

[doc_id=819]

[English]

An approximation of the friction factor of the Colebrook-White equation is proposed, which is expressed as a power-law function of the pipe diameter and the energy gradient and is combined with the Darcy-Weisbach equation, thus yielding an overall power-law equation for turbulent pressurized pipe flow. This is a generalized Manning equation, whose exponents are not unique but depend on the pipe roughness. The parameters of this equation are determined by minimizing the approximation error and are given either in tabulated form or as mathematical expressions of roughness. The maximum approximation errors are much smaller than other errors resulting from uncertainty and misspecification of design and simulation quantities and also much smaller than in the original Manning and the Hazen-Willians equations. Both these equations can be obtained as special cases of the proposed generalized equation by setting the exponent parameters constant. For large roughness the original Manning equation improves in performance and becomes practically equivalent with the proposed generalized equation. Thus its use, particularly when the networks operate with surface flow is absolutely justified. In pressurized conditions the proposed generalized Manning equation can be a valid alternative to the combination of the Colebrook-White and Darcy-Weisbach equations, having the advantage of simplicity and speed of calculation both in manual and computer mode.

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**See also:**
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15730620701712325

**Our works that reference this work:**

1. | D. Koutsoyiannis, Reconciling hydrology with engineering, Hydrology Research, 45 (1), 2–22, doi:10.2166/nh.2013.092, 2014. |

2. | N. Mamassis, A. Efstratiadis, P. Dimitriadis, T. Iliopoulou, R. Ioannidis, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Water and Energy, Handbook of Water Resources Management: Discourses, Concepts and Examples, edited by J. Bogardi, K. D. Wasantha, R. R. P. Nandalal, R. van Nooyen, and A. Bhaduri, Chapter 20, Springer Nature, Switzerland, 2020, (in press). |

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**Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):**

1. | Perelman, L., A. Ostfeld and E. Salomons, Cross Entropy multiobjective optimization for water distribution systems design, Water Resources Research, 44 (9), Art. No. W09413, 2008. |

2. | Goulding, G. M. and Z. F. Hu, Urban wet-weather flows, Water Environment Research, 81 (10), 1003-1055, 2009. |

3. | #Butler, D., and J. Davies, Urban Drainage, 3rd edn., Taylor & Francis, 2011. |

**Tagged under:**
Hydraulic models