Maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System for the management of the Athens water resource system
Duration: October 2008–November 2011
Budget: €72 000
Project director: N. Mamassis
Principal investigator: D. Koutsoyiannis
This research project includes the maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System that developed by NTUA for EYDAP in the framework of the research project “Updating of the supervision and management of the water resources’ system for the water supply of the Athens’ metropolitan area”. The project is consisted of the following parts: (a) Upgrading of the Data Base, (b)Upgrading and extension of hydrometeorological network, (c) upgrading of the hydrometeorological data process software, (d) upgrading and extension of the Hydronomeas software, (e) hydrological data analysis and (f) support to the preparation of the annual master plans
N. Mamassis, S. Chrisoulaki, Aim. Bedenmaxer-Gerousis, T. Evangelou , P. Koutis, G. Peppas, P. Defteraios, N. Zarkadoulas, D. Koutsoyiannis, and E. Griva, Representing the operation and evolution of ancient Piraeus’ water supply system, Water History, doi:10.1007/s12685-022-00299-7, May 2022.
The newly excavated urban water supply system of the city of ancient Piraeus provides an excellent opportunity for the study and evaluation of the issues of sustainability, adaptability, simplicity and environmental protection, which are of main concern in modern engineering design practices. Well-digging in the area of Pireaus dates back to the city’ founding during the Classical period. However, scarcity of groundwaters stimulated development of water harvesting techniques, mainly cisterns for the collection of rain water, and to the gradual increase of their capacity in order to avoid overflows. Changes to land plot areas and the increase in water demand during the Hellenistic period affected the operation of cisterns triggering a variety of subterranean constructions that expanded the existing capacity. During the Roman period, the city’s water needs for domestic and public use skyrocketed beyond the supply capacity of the water resources of the Piraeus’ peninsula. On account of this, an aqueduct which transferred water from outside the peninsula was constructed in the 2nd century AD, while cisterns and wells were gradually abandoned. The present paper examines the operation of ancient Piraeus’ urban water supply system and its evolution across nine centuries by studying the operation and evolution of cisterns through a combination of excavation finds (from the Ephorate of Antiquities of Piraeus and the Islands) and quantitative techniques. Water consumption during several historical periods and the available water resources of the peninsula were quantified and a hydrologic model was developed to simulate the daily operation of the cisterns over an 82-year period. Various circumstances were examined by running numerous scenarios for the: (a) magnitude of collecting area, (b) annual water demand, and (c) capacity of the cisterns. For each scenario, the reliability of the hydro-system for supplying residences with water was estimated. Simulation results were then correlated with specific socio-economic characteristics of the corresponding historical periods.
A. N. Angelakis, N. Mamassis, E. Dialynas, and P. Defteraios, Urban Water Supply, Wastewater, and Stormwater Considerations in Ancient Hellas: Lessons Learned, Environment and Natural Resources Research, 4 (3), doi:10.5539/enrr.v4n3p95, October 2014.
Urban water, wastewater and stormwater management practices in ancient Hellas, from the Minoan to the Roman times are briefly reviewed. In the Prehistoric Hellas palaces and other settlements tended to be located at dry places, at a distance from rivers or lakes. During the Bronze Age decentralized water supply and wastewater and stormwater management of small-scale systems were dominant. These systems are characterized by their salient architectural and hydraulic features and perfect adaptation to the environment. On the other hand, under tyranny, cities grew significantly and the first large-scale urban water infrastructures were developed. During the periods of democracy the Hippodameian system of city planning included the public hydraulic works. This period is also characterized by significant scientific progress in the hygienic use of water in public baths and latrines. Finally, Romans used the scientific knowledge and the experience of small scale constructions of the Hellenes, to construct large scale hydraulic works using sophisticated techniques.
P. Avgerinou , Ε. Chiotis , S. Chrisoulaki, P. Defteraios, T. Evangelou , M. Gigourtakis, G. Kakes, Y. Kourtzellis , P. Koutis, N. Mamassis, M. Pappa, G. Peppas, and A. Strataridaki, Updated Appraisal of Ancient Underground Aqueducts in Greece, Underground Aqueducts Handbook, edited by A. N. Angelakis, Ε. Chiotis , S. Eslamian , and H. Weingartner, doi:10.1201/9781315368566-5, 2016.
D. Koutsoyiannis, N. Mamassis, and P. Defteraios, The evolution of water science and technology in ancient Athens, Hydrotechnologies in Ancient Greece, Chania, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.31867.16167, Technical University of Crete, 2019.
Video from a visit to Hadrianic Aqueduct: https://youtu.be/n5Iaa90TNO0
N. Mamassis, P. Defteraios, N. Zarkadoulas, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Research on water supply of ancient Piraeus-Representation of ancient cisterns operation, 16 pages, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.11392.64000, 15 May 2015.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1550/1/documents/Pres_cist_5_14_fin.pdf (2543 KB)
P. Defteraios, Current state of underground bed of the Ilisos river, Athens, 2013.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1358/1/documents/2013Ilisos.pdf (7750 KB)
P. Defteraios, and N. Mamassis, Final report: analysis and site investigation of the Hadrian aquaduct of Athens, Exploration of Hadrian aqueduct of Athens and recording of current state of specific underground parts, Contractor: National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), February 2019.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1936/1/documents/HadrianFinReport.pdf (56109 KB)
P. Defteraios, and N. Mamassis, Geographic and photographic data file, Exploration of Hadrian aqueduct of Athens and recording of current state of specific underground parts, Contractor: National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 2019.
P. Defteraios, and N. Mamassis, Technical report: analysis and site investigation of the Hadrian aqueduct of Athens, Exploration of Hadrian aqueduct of Athens and recording of current state of specific underground parts, Contractor: National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), February 2018.
Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1880/1/documents/ekthesi_proodoyFin.pdf (11482 KB)