Sandra Baki

Civil Engineer, MSc., PhD candidate
sandra@itia.ntua.gr
+30-2107722860
http://itia.ntua.gr/sandrabaki/

Participation in research projects

Participation as Researcher

  1. Maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System for the management of the Athens water resource system
  2. Development of Database and software applications in a web platform for the "National Databank for Hydrological and Meteorological Information"

Published work

Publications in scientific journals

  1. D. Koutsoyiannis, C. Makropoulos, A. Langousis, S. Baki, A. Efstratiadis, A. Christofides, G. Karavokiros, and N. Mamassis, Climate, hydrology, energy, water: recognizing uncertainty and seeking sustainability, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 247–257, doi:10.5194/hess-13-247-2009, 2009.

Book chapters and fully evaluated conference publications

  1. S. Baki, I. Koutiva, and C. Makropoulos, A hybrid artificial intelligence modelling framework for the simulation of the complete, socio-technical, urban water system, 2012 International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, Managing Resources of a Limited Planet, Leipzig, International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, 2012.
  2. E. Rozos, S. Baki, D. Bouziotas, and C. Makropoulos, Exploring the link between urban development and water demand: The impact of water-aware technologies and options, Computing and Control for the Water Industry (CCWI) 2011, Exeter, UK, CCWI2011-311, University of Exeter, 2011.

Research reports

  1. E. Rozos, D. Bouziotas, and S. Baki, PEBE 2010: Final report, PEBE 2010: Analysis of the interaction between urban growth and urban water/energy demand, Contractors: , 31 December 2012.
  2. N. Mamassis, A. Koukouvinos, and S. Baki, Final report, Development of a Geographical Information System and an Internet application for the supervision of Kephisos protected areas, Contractor: Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, Athens, November 2008.

Engineering reports

  1. A. Efstratiadis, A. Koukouvinos, N. Mamassis, S. Baki, Y. Markonis, and D. Koutsoyiannis, [No English title available], , Commissioner: Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change, Contractor: Exarhou Nikolopoulos Bensasson, 205 pages, February 2013.
  2. A. Koukouvinos, A. Efstratiadis, N. Mamassis, Y. Markonis, S. Baki, and D. Koutsoyiannis, [No English title available], , Commissioner: Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change, Contractor: Exarhou Nikolopoulos Bensasson, 144 pages, February 2013.

Details on research projects

Participation as Researcher

  1. Maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System for the management of the Athens water resource system

    Duration: October 2008–November 2011

    Budget: €72 000

    Project director: N. Mamassis

    Principal investigator: D. Koutsoyiannis

    This research project includes the maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System that developed by NTUA for EYDAP in the framework of the research project “Updating of the supervision and management of the water resources’ system for the water supply of the Athens’ metropolitan area”. The project is consisted of the following parts: (a) Upgrading of the Data Base, (b)Upgrading and extension of hydrometeorological network, (c) upgrading of the hydrometeorological data process software, (d) upgrading and extension of the Hydronomeas software, (e) hydrological data analysis and (f) support to the preparation of the annual master plans

  1. Development of Database and software applications in a web platform for the "National Databank for Hydrological and Meteorological Information"

    Duration: December 2009–May 2011

    Budget: €140 000

    Commissioned by: Hydroscope Systems Consortium

    Contractor: Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

    Project director: N. Mamassis

    Principal investigator: N. Mamassis

    The Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning & Public Works assigned to a consortium of consultancy companies the Project "Development of a new software platform for the management and operation of the National Databank for Hydrologic and Meteorological Information - 3rd Phase within a GIS environment and relevant dissemination actions". In the framework of the specific project a research team of NTUA undertakes a part as subcontractor. NTUA delivers methodologies for further development of the databases and applications of the Databank and their migration into a web platform (including the experimental node openmeteo.org for free data storage for the public). Specifically, using the knowhow that has been developed in the past by Research Teams from the Department of Water Resources of the School of Civil Engineering a database system and software applications (included hydrological models) are created fully adapted for operation over the Internet. NTUA's contribution is primarily on the design of the new system and the hydrological and geographical database the development of distibuted hydological models, the adaptation of the system to the WFD 2000/60/EC and on supporting dissemination activities. Finally NTUA will participate in the technical support and pilot operation of the project after its delivery from the consortium to the Ministry.

    More information is available at http://www.hydroscope.gr/.

Published work in detail

Publications in scientific journals

  1. D. Koutsoyiannis, C. Makropoulos, A. Langousis, S. Baki, A. Efstratiadis, A. Christofides, G. Karavokiros, and N. Mamassis, Climate, hydrology, energy, water: recognizing uncertainty and seeking sustainability, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 247–257, doi:10.5194/hess-13-247-2009, 2009.

    Since 1990 extensive funds have been spent on research in climate change. Although Earth Sciences, including climatology and hydrology, have benefited significantly, progress has proved incommensurate with the effort and funds, perhaps because these disciplines were perceived as “tools” subservient to the needs of the climate change enterprise rather than autonomous sciences. At the same time, research was misleadingly focused more on the “symptom”, i.e. the emission of greenhouse gases, than on the “illness”, i.e. the unsustainability of fossil fuel-based energy production. Unless energy saving and use of renewable resources become the norm, there is a real risk of severe socioeconomic crisis in the not-too-distant future. A framework for drastic paradigm change is needed, in which water plays a central role, due to its unique link to all forms of renewable energy, from production (hydro and wave power) to storage (for time-varying wind and solar sources), to biofuel production (irrigation). The extended role of water should be considered in parallel to its other uses, domestic, agricultural and industrial. Hydrology, the science of water on Earth, must move towards this new paradigm by radically rethinking its fundamentals, which are unjustifiably trapped in the 19th-century myths of deterministic theories and the zeal to eliminate uncertainty. Guidance is offered by modern statistical and quantum physics, which reveal the intrinsic character of uncertainty/entropy in nature, thus advancing towards a new understanding and modelling of physical processes, which is central to the effective use of renewable energy and water resources.

    Remarks:

    Blogs and forums that have discussed this article: Climate science; Vertical news; Outside the cube.

    Update 2011-09-26: The removed video of the panel discussion of Nobelists entitled “Climate Changes and Energy Challenges” (held in the framework of the 2008 Meeting of Nobel Laureates at Lindau on Physics) which is referenced in footnote 1 of the paper, still cannot be located online. However, Larry Gould has an audio file of the discussion here.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/878/17/documents/hess-13-247-2009.pdf (1476 KB)

    Additional material:

    See also: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-13-247-2009

    Works that cite this document: View on Google Scholar or ResearchGate

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Andréassian, V., C. Perrin, L. Berthet, N. Le Moine, J. Lerat, C. Loumagne, L. Oudin, T. Mathevet, M.-H. Ramos, and A. Valéry, HESS Opinions "Crash tests for a standardized evaluation of hydrological models", Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 1757-1764, 2009.
    2. Hunt, D. V. L., I. Jefferson, M. R. Gaterell, and C. D. F. Rogers, Planning for sustainable utility infrastructure, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Urban Design and Planning, 162(DP4), 187-201, 2009.
    3. Makropoulos, C. K., and D. Butler, Distributed water infrastructure for sustainable communities, Water Resources Management, 24(11), 2795-2816, 2010.
    4. Jódar, J., J. Carrera, and A. Cruz, Irrigation enhances precipitation at the mountains downwind, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14, 2003-2010, 2010.
    5. #Ladanai, S., and J. Vinterbäck, Biomass for Energy versus Food and Feed, Land Use Analyses and Water Supply, Report 022, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, ISSN 1654-9406, Uppsala, 2010.
    6. Ward, J. D., A. D. Werner, W. P. Nel, and S. Beecham, The influence of constrained fossil fuel emissions scenarios on climate and water resource projections, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15, 1879-1893, 2011.
    7. #Montanari, A, Uncertainty of hydrological predictions, In: P. Wilderer (ed.) Treatise on Water Science, Vol. 2, 459–478, Oxford Academic Press, 2011.
    8. #Willems, P., J. Olsson, K. Arnbjerg-Nielsen, S. Beecham, A. Pathirana, I. Bulow Gregersen, H. Madsen, V.-T.-V. Nguyen, Practices and Impacts of Climate Change on Rainfall Extremes and Urban Drainage, IWA Publishing, London, 2012.
    9. Andrés-Doménech, I., A. Montanari and J. B. Marco, Efficiency of storm detention tanks for urban drainage systems under climate variability, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 138 (1), 36-46, 2012.
    10. Montanari, A., Hydrology of the Po River: looking for changing patterns in river discharge, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 3739-3747, doi:10.5194/hess-16-3739-2012, 2012.
    11. Voulvoulis, N., Water and sanitation provision in a low carbon society: The need for a systems approach, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 4(4), 041403, 2012.
    12. #Skaggs, R., K. A. Hibbard, T. C. Janetos, and J. S. Rice, Climate and energy-water-land system interactions, Technical report to the U.S. Department of Energy in Support of the National Climate Assessment, Report No. PNNL-21185, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 152 pp., 2012.
    13. Gunasekara, N. K., S. Kazama, D. Yamazaki and T. Oki, The effects of country-level population policy for enhancing adaptation to climate change, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4429-4440, 2013.
    14. Nastos, P. T., N. Politi, and J. Kapsomenakis, Spatial and temporal variability of the aridity index in Greece, Atmospheric Research, 19, 140-152, 2013.
    15. Hrachowitz, M., H.H.G. Savenije, G. Blöschl, J.J. McDonnell, M. Sivapalan, J.W. Pomeroy, B. Arheimer, T. Blume, M.P. Clark, U. Ehret, F. Fenicia, J.E. Freer, A. Gelfan, H.V. Gupta, D.A. Hughes, R.W. Hut, A. Montanari, S. Pande, D. Tetzlaff, P.A. Troch, S. Uhlenbrook, T. Wagener, H.C. Winsemius, R.A. Woods, E. Zehe, and C. Cudennec, A decade of Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB) — a review, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 58(6), 1198-1255, 2013.
    16. Thompson, S. E., M. Sivapalan, C. J. Harman, V. Srinivasan, M. R. Hipsey, P. Reed, A. Montanari and G. and Blöschl, Developing predictive insight into changing water systems: use-inspired hydrologic science for the Anthropocene, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 5013-5039, 2013.
    17. #Voulvoulis, N., The potential of water reuse as a management option for water security under the ecosystem services approach, Win4Life Conference, Tinos Island, Greece, 2013.
    18. Dette, H., and K. Sen, Goodness-of-fit tests in long-range dependent processes under fixed alternatives, ESAIM: Probability and Statistics, 17, 432-443, 2013.
    19. Ilich, N., An effective three-step algorithm for multi-site generation of stochastic weekly hydrological time series, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59 (1), 85-98, 2014.
    20. Jain, S., Reference climate and water data networks for India, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 20(4), 02515001, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001170, 2015.
    21. Voulvoulis, N., The potential of water reuse as a management option for water security under the ecosystem services approach, Desalination and Water Treatment, 53 (12), 3263-3271, 2015.
    22. #Rohli, R. V., Overview of applied climatology and water/energy resources, Selected Readings in Applied Climatology, R. V. Rohli and T. A. Joyner (editors), 144-155, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015.
    23. #Kim, S.S.H., J.D. Hughes, D. Dutta, and J. Vaze, Why do sub-period consistency calibrations outperform traditional optimisations in streamflow prediction? Proceedings of 21st International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, 2061-2067, Gold Coast, Australia, 2015.
    24. Kim, S. S. H., J. D. Hughes, J. Chen, D. Dutta, and J. Vaze, Determining probability distributions of parameter performances for time-series model calibration: A river system trial, Journal of Hydrology, 530, 361–371, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.09.073, 2015.
    25. Clark, C., Two rural temperature records in Somerset, UK, Weather, 70(10), 280-284, doi:10.1002/wea.2512, 2015.
    26. Tsonis, A. A., Randomness: a property of the mathematical and physical systems, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 61(9), 1591-1610, doi:10.1080/02626667.2014.992434, 2016.
    27. Di Baldassarre, G., L. Brandimarte, and K. Beven, The seventh facet of uncertainty: wrong assumptions, unknowns and surprises in the dynamics of human-water systems, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 61(9), 1748-1758, doi:10.1080/02626667.2015.1091460, 2016.
    28. Chrs, C. C., Models, the establishment, and the real world: Why do so many flood problems remain in the UK?, Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 5, 44-59, doi:10.4236/gep.2017.52004, 2017.
    29. Madani, E. M., P. E. Jansson, and I. Babelon, Differences in water balance between grassland and forest watersheds using long-term data, derived using the CoupModel, Hydrology Research, doi:10.2166/nh.2017.154, 2017.

Book chapters and fully evaluated conference publications

  1. S. Baki, I. Koutiva, and C. Makropoulos, A hybrid artificial intelligence modelling framework for the simulation of the complete, socio-technical, urban water system, 2012 International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, Managing Resources of a Limited Planet, Leipzig, International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, 2012.

    A (truly) integrated approach to the management of urban water should take into account, further to the characteristics of the technical system, a range of socio-economic processes and interactions – combined into what has been termed the “socio-technical system”. This is by no means an easy endeavour: conventional simulation tools often fail to capture socio-economic processes and their interactions with the technical urban water system. Variables depicting the socioeconomic environment are usually static and estimated from literature and/or expert opinion. To address this issue, new socio-technical modelling approaches are emerging aiming to explicitly account for the feedback loops between the socioeconomic environment and the urban water system. In this paper we develop a hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) conceptual model using System Dynamics (SD), Agent Based Modelling (ABM) and urban water modelling tools to investigate the urban water system’s response to different policies. The SD model simulates the broader socio-economic, natural and technical context and links to more specialised tools for the social and technical sub-systems: For the social subsystem, ABM is used to model preferences and decisions of water users, whereas for the technical system, the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT) is used to provide a detailed representation of the urban water cycle, affected by the endusers’ decisions. The proposed modelling framework allows for the dynamic nature of the socio-economic variables to be explicitly included in the assessment in order to test the effectiveness of different policies, such as awareness raising campaigns, and dynamically simulate the subsequent response of the urban water system in time. The paper discusses the integration of urban water and social simulation models at a higher modelling level via a System Dynamics platform and the suitability of such a framework for the assessment of the performance and pressures on urban water systems under varying conditions and scenarios.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1312/1/documents/I5_0781_Baki_et_al.pdf (1543 KB)

    See also: http://www.iemss.org/society/index.php/iemss-2012-proceedings

  1. E. Rozos, S. Baki, D. Bouziotas, and C. Makropoulos, Exploring the link between urban development and water demand: The impact of water-aware technologies and options, Computing and Control for the Water Industry (CCWI) 2011, Exeter, UK, CCWI2011-311, University of Exeter, 2011.

    In conventional urban planning, water demand is covered exclusively by potable water supply and wastewater is directly conducted to the sewers. One of the disadvantages of this practice is that the expansion of an urban area puts additional pressure on existing water infrastructure (both water supply and wastewater networks), which may result in capacity exceedance. In such cases, the required upgrades of existing infrastructure are slow and potentially very costly. On the other hand, modern decentralized water-aware technologies (including for example grey water recycling and rainwater harvesting) enable water reuse at the scale of a household or a neighbourhood. Such options reduce the pressure on the infrastructure and alleviate the need for upgrading centralized infrastructure, hence reducing the cost of urban growth. In an attempt to quantify the potential benefits of these technologies we coupled an urban water management model with a land-use model based on Cellular Automata (CA). The land-use model produces scenarios of urban growth/transformation, which are then assessed through the use of an urban water management model. The assessment is based on indicators including potable water demand, peak runoff discharge and volume of produced waste water. The final result is a representation of the evolution of these indicators as a function of urban growth contrasting conventional and innovative practices.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1152/1/documents/CCWI2011_311.pdf (476 KB)

    Additional material:

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Tong Thi Hoang Duong, Avner Adin, David Jackman, Peter van der Steen, Kala Vairavamoorthy, Urban water management strategies based on a total urban water cycle model and energy aspects – Case study for Tel Aviv, Urban Water Journal, Vol. 8, Iss. 2, 2011.

Research reports

  1. E. Rozos, D. Bouziotas, and S. Baki, PEBE 2010: Final report, PEBE 2010: Analysis of the interaction between urban growth and urban water/energy demand, Contractors: , 31 December 2012.

    Related project: PEBE 2010: Analysis of the interaction between urban growth and urban water/energy demand

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1362/1/documents/Final_Report.pdf (2429 KB)

  1. N. Mamassis, A. Koukouvinos, and S. Baki, Final report, Development of a Geographical Information System and an Internet application for the supervision of Kephisos protected areas, Contractor: Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, Athens, November 2008.

    The purpose of the study is the development of a system for the supervision of the protected areas in Kephisos river basin. Using the applications developed, the staff of Kephisos Institution will achieve the real time recording of various activities inside the limits of protection belts. Specifically, three main applications have been developed: (a) A Geographical Information System (GIS) (b) A Global Positioning System Application (GPS) (c) An Internet application

    Related project: Development of a Geographical Information System and an Internet application for the supervision of Kephisos protected areas

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/898/1/documents/kif_final_report______________.pdf (2372 KB)

Engineering reports

  1. A. Efstratiadis, A. Koukouvinos, N. Mamassis, S. Baki, Y. Markonis, and D. Koutsoyiannis, [No English title available], , Commissioner: Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change, Contractor: Exarhou Nikolopoulos Bensasson, 205 pages, February 2013.

    Related project: Κατάρτιση Σχεδίων Διαχείρισης των Λεκανών Απορροής Ποταμών των Υδατικών Διαμερισμάτων Δυτικής Μακεδονίας και Κεντρικής Μακεδονίας, σύμφωνα με τις προδιαγραφές της Οδηγίας 2000/60/ΕΚ, κατ’εφαρμογή του Ν. 3199/2003 και του Π.Δ. 51/2007

  1. A. Koukouvinos, A. Efstratiadis, N. Mamassis, Y. Markonis, S. Baki, and D. Koutsoyiannis, [No English title available], , Commissioner: Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change, Contractor: Exarhou Nikolopoulos Bensasson, 144 pages, February 2013.

    Related project: Κατάρτιση Σχεδίων Διαχείρισης των Λεκανών Απορροής Ποταμών των Υδατικών Διαμερισμάτων Δυτικής Μακεδονίας και Κεντρικής Μακεδονίας, σύμφωνα με τις προδιαγραφές της Οδηγίας 2000/60/ΕΚ, κατ’εφαρμογή του Ν. 3199/2003 και του Π.Δ. 51/2007