Georgios-Fivos Sargentis

Civil Engineer, Dr. Engineer
G.-F.Sargentis@itia.ntua.gr
+30-2107722586
http://www.itia.ntua.gr/~fivos/

Participation in research projects

Participation as Researcher

  1. Maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System for the management of the Athens water resource system
  2. Investigation of scenarios for the management and protection of the quality of the Plastiras Lake

Published work

Publications in scientific journals

  1. K. Hadjibiros, A. Katsiri, A. Andreadakis, D. Koutsoyiannis, A. Stamou, A. Christofides, A. Efstratiadis, and G.-F. Sargentis, Multi-criteria reservoir water management, Global Network for Environmental Science and Technology, 7 (3), 386–394, 2005.
  2. A. Christofides, A. Efstratiadis, D. Koutsoyiannis, G.-F. Sargentis, and K. Hadjibiros, Resolving conflicting objectives in the management of the Plastiras Lake: can we quantify beauty?, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9 (5), 507–515, 2005.

Book chapters and fully evaluated conference publications

  1. G.-F. Sargentis, K. Hadjibiros, and A. Christofides, Plastiras lake: the impact of water level on the aesthetic value of landscape, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (9CEST), Rhodes, B, 817–824, Department of Environmental Studies, University of the Aegean, 2005.
  2. K. Hadjibiros, A. Katsiri, A. Andreadakis, D. Koutsoyiannis, A. Stamou, A. Christofides, A. Efstratiadis, and G.-F. Sargentis, Multi-criteria reservoir water management, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (9CEST), Rhodes, A, 535–543, Department of Environmental Studies, University of the Aegean, 2005.
  3. K. Hadjibiros, D. Koutsoyiannis, A. Katsiri, A. Stamou, A. Andreadakis, G.-F. Sargentis, A. Christofides, A. Efstratiadis, and A. Valassopoulos, Management of water quality of the Plastiras reservoir, 4th International Conference on Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4872.4723, 2002.

Conference publications and presentations with evaluation of abstract

  1. A. Efstratiadis, D. Koutsoyiannis, K. Hadjibiros, A. Andreadakis, A. Stamou, A. Katsiri, G.-F. Sargentis, and A. Christofides, A multicriteria approach for the sustainable management of the Plastiras reservoir, Greece, EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 5, Nice, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.23631.48801, European Geophysical Society, 2003.

Educational notes

  1. A. Christofides, A. Efstratiadis, and G.-F. Sargentis, Presentation of the research project "Investigation of scenarios for the management and protection of the quality of the Plastiras Lake", 79 pages, 1 April 2003.

Academic works

  1. G.-F. Sargentis, The esthetical element in water, hydraulic works and dams, Diploma thesis, Department of Water Resources, Hydraulic and Maritime Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, Athens, 1998.

Research reports

  1. K. Hadjibiros, D. Koutsoyiannis, A. Andreadakis, A. Katsiri, A. Stamou, A. Valassopoulos, A. Efstratiadis, I. Katsiris, M. Kapetanaki, A. Koukouvinos, N. Mamassis, K. Noutsopoulos, G.-F. Sargentis, and A. Christofides, Overview report, Investigation of scenarios for the management and protection of the quality of the Plastiras Lake, Report 1, 23 pages, Department of Water Resources, Hydraulic and Maritime Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, Athens, March 2002.
  2. G.-F. Sargentis, and A. Christofides, The landscape, Investigation of scenarios for the management and protection of the quality of the Plastiras Lake, Report 4, 73 pages, Department of Water Resources, Hydraulic and Maritime Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, Athens, March 2002.

Details on research projects

Participation as Researcher

  1. Maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System for the management of the Athens water resource system

    Duration: October 2008–November 2011

    Budget: €72 000

    Project director: N. Mamassis

    Principal investigator: D. Koutsoyiannis

    This research project includes the maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System that developed by NTUA for EYDAP in the framework of the research project “Updating of the supervision and management of the water resources’ system for the water supply of the Athens’ metropolitan area”. The project is consisted of the following parts: (a) Upgrading of the Data Base, (b)Upgrading and extension of hydrometeorological network, (c) upgrading of the hydrometeorological data process software, (d) upgrading and extension of the Hydronomeas software, (e) hydrological data analysis and (f) support to the preparation of the annual master plans

  1. Investigation of scenarios for the management and protection of the quality of the Plastiras Lake

    Duration: May 2001–January 2002

    Commissioned by:

    1. Prefectural Government of Karditsa
    2. Municipality of Karditsa

    Contractor: Department of Water Resources, Hydraulic and Maritime Engineering

    Project director: K. Hadjibiros

    Principal investigator: D. Koutsoyiannis

    To protect the Plastiras Lake, a high quality of the natural landscape and a satisfactory water quality must be ensured, the conflicting water uses and demands must be arranged and effective water management practices must be established. To this aim, the hydrology of the catchment is investigated, the geographical, meteorological and water power data are collected and processed, the water balance is studied and a stochastic model is constructed to support the study of alternative management scenarios. In addition, an analysis of the natural landscape is performed and the negative influences (e.g. dead tries) are determined and quantified using GIS. Furthermore, the water quality parameters are evaluated, the water quality state is assessed, the quantitative targets are determined, the pollution sources are identified and measures for the reduction of pollution are studied using a hydrodynamic model with emphasis on the nutrient status. Based on the results of these analyses, scenarios of safe water release are suggested.

Published work in detail

Publications in scientific journals

  1. K. Hadjibiros, A. Katsiri, A. Andreadakis, D. Koutsoyiannis, A. Stamou, A. Christofides, A. Efstratiadis, and G.-F. Sargentis, Multi-criteria reservoir water management, Global Network for Environmental Science and Technology, 7 (3), 386–394, 2005.

    The Plastiras dam was constructed in the late 1950s mainly for electric power production, but it has also partially covered irrigation needs and water supply of the plain of Thessaly. Later, the site has been designated as an environment conservation zone because of ecological and landscape values, while tourist activities have been developed around the reservoir. Irrigation of agricultural land, hydroelectric production, drinking water supply, tourism, ecosystem water quality and scenery conservation have evidently been conflicting targets for many years. Good management would require a multi-criteria decision making. Historical data show that the irregular water release has resulted in a great annual fluctuation of the reservoir water level. This situation could be improved by a rational management of abstractions. Apparently, higher release leads simultaneously to more power production and to irrigation of a larger agricultural land. Moreover, demands for electricity and for irrigation are partially competing to each other, due to different optimal time schedules of releases. On the other hand, higher water release leads to lower water level in the reservoir and, therefore, it decreases the beauty of the scenery and deteriorates the trophic state of the lake. Such degradation affects the tourist potential as well as the quality of drinking water supplied by the reservoir. A multi-criteria approach uses different scenarios for the minimum permissible water level of the reservoir, if a constant annual release is applied. The minimum level concept is a simple and functional tool, because it is understood by people, easily certified and incorporated into regulations. The quantity of water that would be yearly available is a function of the minimum level allowed. The water quality depends upon the trophic state of the lake, mainly the concentration of chlorophyll-a, which determines the state of eutrophication and is estimated by water quality simulation models, taking into account pollutant loads such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The value of the landscape is much depending on the water level of the lake, because for lower levels a dead-zone appears between the surface of the water and the surrounding vegetation. When this dead zone is large, it seems lifeless and the lake appears partially empty. Quantification of this visual effect is not easy, but it is possible to establish a correspondence between the aesthetic assessment of the scenery and the minimum allowed reservoir level. Using results from hydrological analysis, water quality models and landscape evaluation, it seems possible to construct a multi-criteria table with different criteria described against alternatives and with a plot of three relative indices against the minimum level allowed. However, decision making has to take into account the fact that comparison or merging of indices corresponding to different criteria analysis encompasses a degree of arbitrariness. More objective decisions would be possible if different benefits and costs were measured in a common unit. Moreover, management will be sensitive to different social pressures.

    Related works:

    • [2] Publication focused on the logic of multicriteria decisions.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/704/1/documents/2006GnestPlastiras.pdf (114 KB)

    Additional material:

    See also: http://www.gnest.org/Journal/Vol7_No3.htm

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. #Sarkar, A., & M. Chakrabarti, Feasibility of corridor between Singhalilla National Park and Senchal Wild Life Sanctuary: a study of five villages between Poobong and 14th Mile Village, Parks, Peace and Partnerships Conf., Waterton, Canada, 2007
    2. Chakrabarti, M., and S. K. Datta, Evolving an effective management information system to monitor co-management of forests, Economic and Political Weekly, 44(18), 53-60, 2009.
    3. Vassoney, E., A. M. Mochet, and C. Comoglio, Use of multicriteria analysis (MCA) for sustainable hydropower planning and management, Journal of Environmental Management, 196, 48–55, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.02.067, 2017.

  1. A. Christofides, A. Efstratiadis, D. Koutsoyiannis, G.-F. Sargentis, and K. Hadjibiros, Resolving conflicting objectives in the management of the Plastiras Lake: can we quantify beauty?, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9 (5), 507–515, 2005.

    The possible water management of the Plastiras Lake, an artificial reservoir in central Greece, is examined. The lake and surrounding landscape are aesthetically degraded when the water level drops, and the requirement of maintaining a high quality of the scenery constitutes one of the several conflicting water uses, the other ones being irrigation, water supply, and power production. This environmental water use, and, to a lesser extent, the requirement for adequate water quality, results in constraining the annual release. Thus, the allowed fluctuation of reservoir stage is not defined by the physical and technical characteristics of the reservoir, but by a multi-criteria decision, the three criteria being maximising water release, ensuring adequate water quality, and maintaining a high quality of the natural landscape. Each of these criteria is analyzed separately. The results are then put together in a multicriterion tableau, which helps understand the implications of the possible alternative decisions. Several conflict resolution methods are overviewed, namely willingness to pay, hedonic prices, and multi-criteria decision analysis. All these methods attempt to quantify non-quantifiable qualities, and it is concluded that they don't necessarily offer any advantage over merely making a choice based on understanding.

    Remarks:

    Permission is granted to reproduce and modify this paper under the terms of the Creative Commons NonCommercial ShareAlike 2.5 license.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/683/1/documents/2005HESSPlastiras.pdf (404 KB)

    Additional material:

    See also: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-9-507-2005

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Chung, E. S., and K. S. Lee, A social-economic-engineering combined framework for decision making in water resources planning, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 675-686, 2009.
    2. Parisopoulos, G. A., M. Malakou, and M. Giamouri, Evaluation of lake level control using objective indicators: The case of Micro Prespa, Journal of Hydrology, 367(1-2), 86-92, 2009.
    3. #Romanescu, G., C. Stoleriu, and A. Lupascu, Morphology of the lake basin and the nature of sediments in the area of Red Lake (Romania), Annals of the University of Oradea – Geography Series, XX(1), 44-57, 2010.
    4. #Sargentis G. F., V. Symeonidis, and N. Symeonidis, Rules and methods for the development of a prototype landscape (Almyro) in north Evia by the creation of a thematic park, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2011), Rhodes, Greece, 2011.
    5. Shamsudin, S., A. A. Rahman and Z. B. Haron, Water level evaluation at Southern Malaysia reservoir using fuzzy composite programming, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 2 (4), 127-132, 2013.
    6. #Romanescu, G., C. C. Stoleriu, and A. Enea, Water management, Limnology of the Red Lake, Romania, Springer, 2013.
    7. Zhang, T., W. H. Zeng, S. R. Wang, and Z. K. Ni, Temporal and spatial changes of water quality and management strategies of Dianchi Lake in southwest China, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 18, 1493-1502, doi:10.5194/hess-18-1493-2014, 2014.
    8. Zhang, T., W. H. Zeng, and F. L. Yang, Applying a BP neural network approach to the evolution stage classification of China Rift Lakes, International Journal of Modeling and Optimization, 4(6), 450-454, 2014.

Book chapters and fully evaluated conference publications

  1. G.-F. Sargentis, K. Hadjibiros, and A. Christofides, Plastiras lake: the impact of water level on the aesthetic value of landscape, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (9CEST), Rhodes, B, 817–824, Department of Environmental Studies, University of the Aegean, 2005.

    The Plastiras Lake is an artificial reservoir created in 1959 for hydroelectric production. Following different changes in the social, economic and physical context of the area, the water of the lake has been used mainly for irrigation and drinking water supply. Recently, the beautiful scenery of the lake has been considered attractive by visitors and therefore the area has seen a significant touristic development. However, because of the water release mainly for agricultural, but also for hydroelectric purposes, the surface level of the lake varies significantly in the range between the lowest level of 776 m and the overflow level of 792 m. The result is a considerably negative impact on the landscape. The aesthetic value of the scenery has been assessed by a research team through field visits, landscape visual examination, photographic recording, digital image processing, as well as with a survey among visitors. It has been noticed that the most important impact from the level variation is the development of a dead-zone around the lake shore. This zone has different characteristics in the northern and in the southern part. The analysis of the form and size of the dead-zone may provide a concrete assessment of the aesthetic impact, although a quantified approach remains difficult. Moreover, information from the survey gives a significant, yet subjective, estimation of the aesthetic impact. The inhabitants, the regular and the occasional visitors are partially in agreement that the scenery is significantly more valuable when the water level is around 786 m or higher, as compared to when it is around 782 m or lower. If the conservation of the environment and the touristic development of the area are priority objectives, the management of water release through the establishment of a lower limit for the surface level appears to be mandatory.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1005/1/documents/srcosmos.pdf (1136 KB)

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Stamou, A. I., K. Hadjibiros, A. Andreadakis and A. Katsiri, Establishing minimum water level for Plastiras reservoir (Greece) combining water quality modelling with landscape aesthetics, Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 12(3), 157-170, 2007.
    2. #Sargentis G. F., V. Symeonidis, and N. Symeonidis, Rules and methods for the development of a prototype landscape (Almyro) in north Evia by the creation of a thematic park, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2011), Rhodes, Greece, 2011.

  1. K. Hadjibiros, A. Katsiri, A. Andreadakis, D. Koutsoyiannis, A. Stamou, A. Christofides, A. Efstratiadis, and G.-F. Sargentis, Multi-criteria reservoir water management, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (9CEST), Rhodes, A, 535–543, Department of Environmental Studies, University of the Aegean, 2005.

    The Plastiras dam was constructed in the late 1950s mainly for electric power production, but it has also partially covered irrigation needs and water supply of the plain of Thessaly. Later, the site has been designated as an environment conservation zone because of ecological and landscape values, while tourist activities have been developed around the reservoir. Irrigation of agricultural land, hydroelectric production, drinkable water supply, tourism, lake water quality and scenery conservation have evidently been conflicting targets for many years. Good management would require a multi-criteria decision making. Historical data show that the irregular water release has resulted in a great annual fluctuation of the reservoir water level. This situation could be improved by a rational management of abstractions. Apparently, higher release leads simultaneously to more power production and to irrigation of a larger agricultural land. Moreover, demands for electricity and for irrigation are partially competing to each other, due to different optimal time schedules of releases. On the other hand, higher water release leads to lower water level in the reservoir and, therefore, it decreases the beauty of the scenery and deteriorates the trophic state of the lake. Such degradation affects the tourist potential as well as the quality of drinking water supplied by the reservoir. A multi-criteria approach uses different scenarios for the minimum permissible water level of the reservoir, if a constant annual release is applied. The minimum level concept is a simple and functional tool, because it is easily understood by people, certified and incorporated into regulations. The quantity of water that would be yearly available is a function of the minimum level allowed. The water quality depends upon the trophic state of the lake, mainly the concentration of chlorophyll-a, which determines the state of eutrophication and is estimated by water quality simulation models, taking into account pollutant loads such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The value of the landscape is much depending on the water level of the lake, because for lower levels a dead-zone appears between the surface of the water and the surrounding vegetation. When this dead zone is large, it seems lifeless and the lake appears partially empty. Quantification of this visual effect is not easy, but it is possible to establish a correspondence between the aesthetic assessment of the scenery and the minimum allowed reservoir level. Using results from hydrological analysis, water quality models and landscape evaluation, it seems possible to construct a multi-criterion table with different criteria described against alternatives and with a plot of three relative indices against the minimum level allowed. However, decision making has to take into account the fact that comparison or merging of indices corresponding to different criteria analysis encompasses a degree of arbitrariness. More objective decisions would be possible if different benefits and costs were measured in a common unit. Moreover, management will be sensitive to different social pressures.

    Related works:

    • [1] Posterior more complete version.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/682/1/documents/2005CestRhodesPlastiras.pdf (141 KB)

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Stamou, A.I., K. Hadjibiros, A. Andreadakis and A. Katsiri, Establishing minimum water level for Plastiras reservoir (Greece) combining water quality modelling with landscape aesthetics, Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 12(3), 157-170, 2007.
    2. #Sargentis G. F., V. Symeonidis, and N. Symeonidis, Rules and methods for the development of a prototype landscape (Almyro) in north Evia by the creation of a thematic park, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2011), Rhodes, Greece, 2011.

  1. K. Hadjibiros, D. Koutsoyiannis, A. Katsiri, A. Stamou, A. Andreadakis, G.-F. Sargentis, A. Christofides, A. Efstratiadis, and A. Valassopoulos, Management of water quality of the Plastiras reservoir, 4th International Conference on Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4872.4723, 2002.

    The problems associated with establishing a "safe" minimum level for a reservoir serving multiple and conflicting purposes (hydroelectric power generation, water supply, irrigation and recreation) are discussed. A comprehensive approach of the problem considers three different criteria. The first criterion is water quantity. Available long-term reservoir inflow data are analyzed to establish 'sustainable" water inputs in relation to demands that have to be satisfied. The second criterion is ecology and landscape and considers how fluctuations of the reservoir level affect the lake banks vegetation. It discusses the implications to aesthetic, touristic and beneficial uses. The third criterion is water quality and considers how the fluctuations in lake volume affect the chemical and biological status of the lake. For this purpose a one-dimensional eutrophication model was used. The minimum water level is established from the synthesis of the above, using a multi-criteria analysis.

    Remarks:

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/546/1/documents/2002TsehiaPlastiras.pdf (241 KB)

    See also: http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.4872.4723

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. #Spanoudaki, K., and A. Stamou, The prospects of developing integrated ecological models for the needs of the WFD 2000/60, Proceedings of the International Conference for the Restoration and Protection of the Environment V, Mykonos, 2004.
    2. #Stamou, A. I., K. Nanou-Giannarou, and K. Spanoudaki, Best modeling practices in the application of the Directive 2000/60 in Greece, Proc. 3rd IASME/WSEAS Int. Conf. on Energy, Environment, Ecosystems and Sustainable Development, 388-397, 2007.
    3. Stamou, A.I., K. Hadjibiros, A. Andreadakis, and A. Katsiri, Establishing minimum water level for Plastiras reservoir (Greece) combining water quality modelling with landscape aesthetics, Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 12(3), 157-170, 2007.

Conference publications and presentations with evaluation of abstract

  1. A. Efstratiadis, D. Koutsoyiannis, K. Hadjibiros, A. Andreadakis, A. Stamou, A. Katsiri, G.-F. Sargentis, and A. Christofides, A multicriteria approach for the sustainable management of the Plastiras reservoir, Greece, EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 5, Nice, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.23631.48801, European Geophysical Society, 2003.

    The Plastiras reservoir, sited in Western Thessaly, Greece, is a multipurpose project used for irrigation, water supply, hydropower, and recreation; the importance of the latter is continuously increasing as the reservoir landscape becomes attractive to tourists. These uses are competitive and result in a particularly complex problem of water management. Recently, a multidisciplinary analysis was attempted, aiming at determining a rational and sustainable management policy for the Plastiras Lake. This consists of establishing a minimum allowable water level for abstractions, in addition to a proper release policy. Until now, the reservoir level has had a 16 m fluctuation range, affecting negatively both the landscape, due to the exposure of the dead (no-vegetation) zone and the water quality. Three types of analyses were employed, to determine the variation of the corresponding criteria as a function of the allowable minimum level. The first one was the annual safe yield for various reliability levels, derived through a stochastic simulation model for the reservoir operation. The second criterion was the average summer concentration of chlorophyll-a (as indicator of the eutrophic regime of the lake), estimated through a one-dimensional eutrophication model. The final criterion was the aesthetics of the landscape; the relative study was focused on the effects of level variation and determined five fluctuation zones to characterise the quality of the landscape. After multiobjective analysis, and in cooperation with the local authorities and the public, a specific value of the minimum allowable level and a release policy were selected, which are currently on the way to be formally legislated.

    Full text:

    See also: http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.23631.48801

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Gounaridis, D., and G. N. Zaimes, GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis applied for environmental issues: the Greek experience, International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences, 7(3), 307–321, 2012.

Educational notes

  1. A. Christofides, A. Efstratiadis, and G.-F. Sargentis, Presentation of the research project "Investigation of scenarios for the management and protection of the quality of the Plastiras Lake", 79 pages, 1 April 2003.

    Remarks:

    Slides from presentation in the postgraduate course "Environmental impacts of hydraulic works".

    Full text:

Academic works

  1. G.-F. Sargentis, The esthetical element in water, hydraulic works and dams, Diploma thesis, Department of Water Resources, Hydraulic and Maritime Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, Athens, 1998.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/431/1/documents/1998sargentis.pdf (33830 KB)

Research reports

  1. K. Hadjibiros, D. Koutsoyiannis, A. Andreadakis, A. Katsiri, A. Stamou, A. Valassopoulos, A. Efstratiadis, I. Katsiris, M. Kapetanaki, A. Koukouvinos, N. Mamassis, K. Noutsopoulos, G.-F. Sargentis, and A. Christofides, Overview report, Investigation of scenarios for the management and protection of the quality of the Plastiras Lake, Report 1, 23 pages, Department of Water Resources, Hydraulic and Maritime Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, Athens, March 2002.

    The Plastiras Lake is a reservoir used for irrigation, water supply, hydropower, and tourism. These uses are competitive and result in an especially complex problem of water management. In this report the problem is presented and the main points of the three parts of the project are summarised; these three parts are the hydrological study, the quality study, and the landscape study. The conflicting demands are arranged, and water release scenarios are suggested.

    Related project: Investigation of scenarios for the management and protection of the quality of the Plastiras Lake

    Full text:

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Andreadakis, A., K. Noutsopoulos, and E. Gavalaki, Assessment of the water quality of Lake Plastira through mathematical modelling for alternative management scenarios, Global Nest: the International Journal, 5(2), pp 99-105, 2003.
    2. #Karalis, S. and A . Chioni, 1-D Hydrodynamic modeling of Greek lakes and reservoirs, Ch. 59 in Environmental Hydraulics, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Environmental Hydraulics (ed. by A. I . Stamou), Athens, Greece, 397–401, 2010.
    3. Kalavrouziotis, I. K., A. Τ. Filintas, P. H. Koukoulakis, and J. N. Hatzopoulos, Application of multicriteria analysis in the management and planning of treated municipal wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture and land development: the case of Sparti’s wastewater treatment plant, Greece, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 20(2), 287-295, 2011.

  1. G.-F. Sargentis, and A. Christofides, The landscape, Investigation of scenarios for the management and protection of the quality of the Plastiras Lake, Report 4, 73 pages, Department of Water Resources, Hydraulic and Maritime Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, Athens, March 2002.

    The level of Lake Plastira varies widely due to water release. Specifically, the level varies from 792 m, which is spill level, to 776 m, which is the lowest level. This variation affects the landscape to a high degree. In this report the aesthetics of the landscape of Lake Plastira is examined, focusing on the effects of level variation. The conclusion is that for levels around 786 m or greater, there are minimal effects on the landscape and virtually everyone finds it wonderful. For lower levels, down to about 782 m, the landscape is significantly affected, mostly due to the dead zone revealed by the lowering of the level; most first or second-time visitors find it beautiful, but many inhabitants of the area and people who visit it regularly anticipate problems. For even lower levels, only visitors who do not come regularly may find the landscape satisfactory, and only in a few observation points. Apart from level variation, other problems of the landscape are discussed, namely those resulting from development. Such problems concern roads, boats, buildings, signs, and light pollution, and it is concluded that the area must be protected. In addition, some preliminary suggestions are made concerning the creation of tourist attractions and infrastructure which should fit the character of the area.

    Related project: Investigation of scenarios for the management and protection of the quality of the Plastiras Lake

    Full text: