Christos Makropoulos

Assistant Professor, Civil Engineer, Dr. Engineer
c.makropoulos@itia.ntua.gr
+30 210 772 2886

Participation in research projects

Participation as Project Director

  1. Cost of raw water of the water supply of Athens

Participation as Researcher

  1. Maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System for the management of the Athens water resource system
  2. OpenMI Life

Participation in engineering studies

  1. Analysis of the effects of the water transfer through the tunnel Fatnicko Polje - Bileca reservoir on the hydrologic regime of Bregava River in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Published work

Publications in scientific journals

  1. E. Rozos, I. Tsoukalas, K. Ripis, E. Smeti, and C. Makropoulos, Turning black into green: Ecosystem services from treated wastewater, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2017, (in press).
  2. P. Kossieris, C. Makropoulos, E. Creaco, L. Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, and D. Savic, Assessing the applicability of the Bartlett-Lewis model in simulating residential water demands, Procedia Engineering, 154, 123–131, 2016.
  3. E. Creaco, P. Kossieris, L. Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, C. Makropoulos, Z. Kapelan, and D. Savic, Parameterizing residential water demand pulse models through smart meter readings, Environmental Modelling and Software, 80, 33–40, 2016.
  4. G. Karavokiros, A. Lykou, I. Koutiva, J. Batica, A. Kostaridis, A. Alves, and C. Makropoulos, Providing evidence-based, intelligent support for flood resilient planning and policy: the PEARL Knowledge Base, Water, 8 (9), 392, doi:10.3390/w8090392, 2016.
  5. P. Kossieris, C. Makropoulos, C. Onof, and D. Koutsoyiannis, A rainfall disaggregation scheme for sub-hourly time scales: Coupling a Bartlett-Lewis based model with adjusting procedures, Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.07.015, 2016.
  6. E. Rozos, D. Butler, and C. Makropoulos, An integrated system dynamics – cellular automata model for distributed water-infrastructure planning, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, doi:10.2166/ws.2016.080, 2016, (in press).
  7. I. Tsoukalas, P. Kossieris, A. Efstratiadis, and C. Makropoulos, Surrogate-enhanced evolutionary annealing simplex algorithm for effective and efficient optimization of water resources problems on a budget, Environmental Modelling and Software, 77, 122–142, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2015.12.008, 2016.
  8. I. Tsoukalas, and C. Makropoulos, A surrogate based optimization approach for the development of uncertainty-aware reservoir operational rules: the case of Nestos hydrosystem, Water Resources Management, 29 (13), 4719–4734, doi:10.1007/s11269-015-1086-8, 2015.
  9. I. Tsoukalas, and C. Makropoulos, Multiobjective optimisation on a budget: Exploring surrogate modelling for robust multi-reservoir rules generation under hydrological uncertainty, Environmental Modelling and Software, 69, 396–413, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.09.023, 2015.
  10. D. Bouziotas, E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Water and the City: Exploring links between urban growth and water demand management., Journal of Hydroinformatics, 17 (2), doi:10.2166/hydro.2014.053, 2015.
  11. P. Kossieris, S. Kozanis, A. Hashmi, E. Katsiri, L. Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, R. Farmani, C. Makropoulos, and D. Savic, A web-based platform for water efficient households, Procedia Engineering, 89, 1128–1135, 2014.
  12. P. Kossieris, Panayiotakis, K. Tzouka, E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, An e-Learning approach for improving household water efficiency, Procedia Engineering, WDSA 2014, Bari, Italy, Water Distribution Systems Analysis, 2014.
  13. E. Rozos, C. Makropoulos, and C. Maksimovic, Rethinking urban areas: an example of an integrated blue-green approach, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 13 (6), 1534–1542, doi:10.2166/ws.2013.140, 2013.
  14. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Source to tap urban water cycle modelling, Environmental Modelling and Software, 41, 139–150, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.11.015, Elsevier, 1 March 2013.
  15. S.M. Papalexiou, D. Koutsoyiannis, and C. Makropoulos, How extreme is extreme? An assessment of daily rainfall distribution tails, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 851–862, doi:10.5194/hess-17-851-2013, 2013.
  16. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Assessing the combined benefits of water recycling technologies by modelling the total urban water cycle, Urban Water Journal, 9 (1), doi:10.1080/1573062X.2011.630096, February 2012.
  17. E. Rozos, C. Makropoulos, and D. Butler, Design robustness of local water-recycling schemes, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management - ASCE, 136 (5), 531–538, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000067, 2010.
  18. D. Koutsoyiannis, C. Makropoulos, A. Langousis, S. Baki, A. Efstratiadis, A. Christofides, G. Karavokiros, and N. Mamassis, Climate, hydrology, energy, water: recognizing uncertainty and seeking sustainability, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 247–257, doi:10.5194/hess-13-247-2009, 2009.
  19. C. Makropoulos, D. Koutsoyiannis, M. Stanic, S. Djordevic, D. Prodanovic, T. Dasic, S. Prohaska, C. Maksimovic, and H. S. Wheater, A multi-model approach to the simulation of large scale karst flows, Journal of Hydrology, 348 (3-4), 412–424, 2008.

Book chapters and fully evaluated conference publications

  1. E. Rozos, I. Tsoukalas, K. Ripis, E. Smeti, and C. Makropoulos, Turning black into green: ecosystem services from treated wastewater, 13th IWA Specialized Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems, Athens, Greece, National Technical University of Athens, 2016, (in press).
  2. I. Tsoukalas, P. Dimas, and C. Makropoulos, Hydrosystem optimization on a budget: Investigating the potential of surrogate based optimization techniques, 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2015), Global Network on Environmental Science and Technology, University of the Aegean, 2015.
  3. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Preparing appropriate water policies for sd analysis: a broad-brush review on water conservation practices, 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2015), Global Network on Environmental Science and Technology, University of the Aegean, Rhodes, Greece, 2015.
  4. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Urban regeneration and optimal water demand management, 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2015), Global Network on Environmental Science and Technology, University of the Aegean, Rhodes, Greece, 2015.
  5. E. Rozos, Y. Photis, and C. Makropoulos, Water demand management in the expanding urban areas of south Attica, 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2015), Global Network on Environmental Science and Technology, University of the Aegean, Rhodes, Greece, 2015.
  6. S. Baki, I. Koutiva, and C. Makropoulos, A hybrid artificial intelligence modelling framework for the simulation of the complete, socio-technical, urban water system, 2012 International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, Managing Resources of a Limited Planet, Leipzig, International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, 2012.
  7. I. Koutiva, and C. Makropoulos, Towards adaptive water resources management: simulating the complete socio-technical system through computational intelligence, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, A998–A1006, Rhodes, 2011.
  8. E. Rozos, S. Baki, D. Bouziotas, and C. Makropoulos, Exploring the link between urban development and water demand: The impact of water-aware technologies and options, Computing and Control for the Water Industry (CCWI) 2011, Exeter, UK, CCWI2011-311, University of Exeter, 2011.
  9. C. Makropoulos, E. Rozos, and D. Butler, Urban water modelling and the daily time step: issues for a realistic representation, 8th International Conference on Hydroinformatics 2009, Concepcion, Chile, Curran Associates, Inc., 57 Morehouse Lane Red Hook, NY 12571 USA, 2011.
  10. N. Evelpidou, N. Mamassis, A. Vassilopoulos, C. Makropoulos, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Flooding in Athens: The Kephisos River flood event of 21-22/10/1994, International Conference on Urban Flood Management, Paris, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4065.5601, UNESCO, 2009.
  11. C. Makropoulos, E. Safiolea, A. Efstratiadis, E. Oikonomidou, V. Kaffes, C. Papathanasiou, and M. Mimikou, Multi-reservoir management with Open-MI, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Chania, A, 788–795, Department of Environmental Studies, University of the Aegean, 2009.
  12. C. Makropoulos, E. Rozos, and C. Maksimovic, Developing An Integrated Modelling System For Blue-Green Solutions, HIC 2014 – 11th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, New York City, USA, HIC2014-216, August 2014.

Conference publications and presentations with evaluation of abstract

  1. E. Rozos, D. Nikolopoulos, A. Efstratiadis, A. Koukouvinos, and C. Makropoulos, Flow based vs. demand based energy-water modelling, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, Vienna, EGU2015-6528, European Geosciences Union, 2015.
  2. I. Tsoukalas, P. Kossieris, A. Efstratiadis, and C. Makropoulos, Handling time-expensive global optimization problems through the surrogate-enhanced evolutionary annealing-simplex algorithm, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, Vienna, EGU2015-5923, European Geosciences Union, 2015.
  3. C. Makropoulos, and E. Rozos, Managing the complete Urban Water Cycle: the Urban Water Optioneering Tool, SWITCH, Paris, France, 2011.
  4. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Ensuring water availability with complete urban water modelling, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2011, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 13, Vienna, European Geosciences Union, 2011.
  5. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Assessing the combined benefits of water recycling technologies by modelling the total urban water cycle, International Precipitation Conference (IPC10), Coimbra, Portugal, 2010.

Presentations and publications in workshops

  1. C. Makropoulos, E. Safiolea, A. Efstratiadis, E. Oikonomidou, and V. Kaffes, Multi-reservoir management with OpenMI, OpenMI-LIFE Pinios Workshop, Volos, 2009.
  2. C. Makropoulos, D. Koutsoyiannis, and A. Efstratiadis, Challenges and perspectives in urban water management, Local Govenance Conference: The Green Technology in the Cities, Athens, Ecocity, Central Association of Greek Municipalities, 2009.

Various publications

  1. E. Rozos, S. Kozanis, and C. Makropoulos, Integrated Modelling System, BGD internal project report, 31 January 2014.
  2. H. Perlman, C. Makropoulos, and D. Koutsoyiannis, The water cycle, http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclegreek.html, 19 pages, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.11182.92480, United States Geological Survey, 2005.

Educational notes

  1. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Programming in Matlab for optimization problems, Athens, Greece, February 2011.
  2. C. Makropoulos, and A. Efstratiadis, Lecture notes on Water Resource System Optimization and Hydroinformatics, 307 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, April 2011.

Academic works

  1. C. Makropoulos, Spatial decision support for urban water management, 321 pages, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering – Imperial College, London, London, 2003.

Research reports

  1. C. Makropoulos, D. Damigos, A. Efstratiadis, A. Koukouvinos, and A. Benardos, Synoptic report and final conclusions, Cost of raw water of the water supply of Athens, 32 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, October 2010.
  2. C. Makropoulos, A. Efstratiadis, and A. Koukouvinos, Appraisal of financial cost and proposals for a rational management of the hydrosystem, Cost of raw water of the water supply of Athens, 73 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, October 2010.
  3. C. Makropoulos, A. Koukouvinos, A. Efstratiadis, and N. Chalkias, Mehodology for estimation of the financial cost , Cost of raw water of the water supply of Athens, 40 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, July 2010.

Engineering reports

  1. C. Maksimovic, H. S. Wheater, D. Koutsoyiannis, S. Prohaska, D. Peach, S. Djordevic, D. Prodanovic, C. Makropoulos, P. Docx, T. Dasic, M. Stanic, D. Spasova, and D. Brnjos, Final Report, Analysis of the effects of the water transfer through the tunnel Fatnicko Polje - Bileca reservoir on the hydrologic regime of Bregava River in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Commissioner: Energy Financing Team, Switzerland, Contractors: CUW-UK, ICCI Limited, London, 2004.

Details on research projects

Participation as Project Director

  1. Cost of raw water of the water supply of Athens

    Duration: June 2010–December 2010

    Budget: €110 000

    Commissioned by: Fixed Assets Company EYDAP

    Contractor: Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

    Project director: C. Makropoulos

Participation as Researcher

  1. Maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System for the management of the Athens water resource system

    Duration: October 2008–November 2011

    Budget: €72 000

    Project director: N. Mamassis

    Principal investigator: D. Koutsoyiannis

    This research project includes the maintenance, upgrading and extension of the Decision Support System that developed by NTUA for EYDAP in the framework of the research project “Updating of the supervision and management of the water resources’ system for the water supply of the Athens’ metropolitan area”. The project is consisted of the following parts: (a) Upgrading of the Data Base, (b)Upgrading and extension of hydrometeorological network, (c) upgrading of the hydrometeorological data process software, (d) upgrading and extension of the Hydronomeas software, (e) hydrological data analysis and (f) support to the preparation of the annual master plans

  1. OpenMI Life

    Duration: January 2006–December 2010

    The project's rationale lies in the Water Framework Directive,which demands an integrated approach to water management. This requires an ability to predict how catchment processes will interact. In most contexts, it is not feasible to build a single predictive model that adequately represents all the processes; therefore, a means of linking models of individual processes is required.The FP5 HarmonIT project's innovative and acclaimed solution, the Open Modelling Interface and Environment (OpenMI) met this need by simplifying the linking of hydrology related models.Its establishment will support and assist the strategic planning and integrated catchment management.

Details on engineering studies

  1. Analysis of the effects of the water transfer through the tunnel Fatnicko Polje - Bileca reservoir on the hydrologic regime of Bregava River in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Duration: April 2004–June 2004

    Commissioned by: Energy Financing Team, Switzerland

    Contractors:

    1. CUW-UK
    2. ICCI Limited

Published work in detail

Publications in scientific journals

  1. E. Rozos, I. Tsoukalas, K. Ripis, E. Smeti, and C. Makropoulos, Turning black into green: Ecosystem services from treated wastewater, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2017, (in press).

    To reduce the impact of urban effluents on the environment, strict regulatory requirements have been set up for the disposal of wastewater, in most parts of the western world, requiring treatment before disposal. At the same time, the urban environment requires water inflows to satisfy a range of urban water demands, and the corresponding water abstractions put pressure on (often scarce) water resources. A suggested synergistic solution is to use the effluents from treatment plants as an alternative resource for irrigation or for industrial uses. Despite the existence of numerous successful applications, this practice is not very common mainly because of increased capital and operational costs, usually exceeding the cost of fresh water. A possible response of the market to this drawback could be to introduce in-situ small scale treatment units to cover local water needs. In this study, we assess the benefits of such a compact wastewater treatment unit that is used to provide water for irrigating an urban green area. Apart from the aesthetic improvement, the evaporative cooling (latent heat), which reduces the air temperature, is expected to have a positive impact on thermal comfort. A pilot scheme was deployed in KEREFYT, the research centre of the Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP). This scheme was simulated with the UWOT model to estimate heat fluxes and the results were fed into Energy2D (a model that simulates heat transfer) to estimate the expected temperature drop. The results are promising and suggest that these technologies could play an important role in a more sustainable, circular water economy.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1715/1/documents/Manuscript_subm2_CM.pdf (636 KB)

  1. P. Kossieris, C. Makropoulos, E. Creaco, L. Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, and D. Savic, Assessing the applicability of the Bartlett-Lewis model in simulating residential water demands, Procedia Engineering, 154, 123–131, 2016.

    This paper presents the set-up and application of the Bartlett-Lewis clustering mechanism to simulate residential water demand at fine, i.e. sub-hourly, time scales. Two different variants of the model, i.e., the original and the random-parameter model, are examined. The models are assessed in terms of preserving the main statistical characteristics and temporal properties of demand series at a range of fine time scales, i.e., from 1-min up to 15-min. The comparison against the typical Poisson rectangular pulse model showed that clustering mechanism enables a better reproduction of demand characteristics at levels of aggregation other than those used in the fitting procedure.

    See also: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.07.429

  1. E. Creaco, P. Kossieris, L. Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, C. Makropoulos, Z. Kapelan, and D. Savic, Parameterizing residential water demand pulse models through smart meter readings, Environmental Modelling and Software, 80, 33–40, 2016.

    This paper proposes a method for parameterizing the Poisson models for residential water demand pulse generation, which consider the dependence of pulse duration and intensity. The method can be applied to consumption data collected in households through smart metering technologies. It is based on numerically searching for the model parameter values associated with pulse frequencies, durations and intensities, which lead to preservation of the mean demand volume and of the cumulative trend of demand volumes, at various time aggregation scales at the same time. The method is applied to various case studies, by using two time aggregation scales for demand volumes, i.e. fine aggregation scale (1 min or 15 min) and coarse aggregation scale (1 day). The fine scale coincides with the time resolution for reading acquisition through smart metering whereas the coarse scale is obtained by aggregating the consumption values recorded at the fine scale. Results show that the parameterization method presented makes the Poisson model effective at reproducing the measured demand volumes aggregated at both time scales. Consistency of the pulses improves as the fine scale resolution increases.

    See also: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.02.019

  1. G. Karavokiros, A. Lykou, I. Koutiva, J. Batica, A. Kostaridis, A. Alves, and C. Makropoulos, Providing evidence-based, intelligent support for flood resilient planning and policy: the PEARL Knowledge Base, Water, 8 (9), 392, doi:10.3390/w8090392, 2016.

    While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB) of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based) lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to, were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1649/1/documents/water-08-00392.pdf (12503 KB)

  1. P. Kossieris, C. Makropoulos, C. Onof, and D. Koutsoyiannis, A rainfall disaggregation scheme for sub-hourly time scales: Coupling a Bartlett-Lewis based model with adjusting procedures, Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.07.015, 2016.

    Many hydrological applications, such as flood studies, require the use of long rainfall data at fine time scales varying from daily down to 1 minute time step. However, in the real world there is limited availability of data at sub-hourly scales. To cope with this issue, stochastic disaggregation techniques are typically employed to produce possible, statistically consistent, rainfall events that aggregate up to the field data collected at coarser scales. A methodology for the stochastic disaggregation of rainfall at fine time scales was recently introduced, combining the Bartlett-Lewis process to generate rainfall events along with adjusting procedures to modify the lower-level variables (i.e., hourly) so as to be consistent with the higher-level one (i.e., daily). In the present paper, we extend the aforementioned scheme, initially designed and tested for the disaggregation of daily rainfall into hourly depths, for any sub-hourly time scale. In addition, we take advantage of the recent developments in Poisson-cluster processes incorporating in the methodology a Bartlett-Lewis model variant that introduces dependence between cell intensity and duration in order to capture the variability of rainfall at sub-hourly time scales. The disaggregation scheme is implemented in an R package, named HyetosMinute, to support disaggregation from daily down to 1-minute time scale. The applicability of the methodology was assessed on a 5-minute rainfall records collected in Bochum, Germany, comparing the performance of the above mentioned model variant against the original Bartlett-Lewis process (non-random with 5 parameters). The analysis shows that the disaggregation process reproduces adequately the most important statistical characteristics of rainfall at wide range of time scales, while the introduction of the model with dependent intensity-duration results in a better performance in terms of skewness, rainfall extremes and dry proportions.

    Additional material:

    See also: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.07.015

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Shrestha, A., M. S. Babel, S. Weesakul, and Z. Vojinovic, Developing intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves under climate change uncertainty: The case of Bangkok, Thailand, Water, 9(2), 145, doi:10.3390/w9020145, 2017.

  1. E. Rozos, D. Butler, and C. Makropoulos, An integrated system dynamics – cellular automata model for distributed water-infrastructure planning, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, doi:10.2166/ws.2016.080, 2016, (in press).

    Modern distributed water-aware technologies (including, for example, grey water recycling and rainwater harvesting) enable water reuse at the scale of household or neighbourhood. Nevertheless, even though these technologies are in some cases economically advantageous, they have a significant handicap compared to the centralized urban water management options: it is not easy to estimate a priori the extent and the rate of the technology spread. This disadvantage is amplified in case of additional uncertainty due to expansion of an urban area. This overall incertitude is one of the basic reasons the stakeholders involved in urban water are sceptical about the distributed technologies, even in the cases these appear to have lower cost. In this study, we suggest a methodology that attempts to cope with this uncertainty by coupling a Cellular Automata and a System Dynamics model. The Cellular Automata model is used to create scenarios of urban expansion including the suitability of installing water-aware technologies for each new urban area. Then, the System Dynamics model is used to estimate the adoption rate of the technologies. Various scenarios based on different economic conditions and water prices are assessed. The suggested methodology is applied to an urban area in Attica, Greece.

  1. I. Tsoukalas, P. Kossieris, A. Efstratiadis, and C. Makropoulos, Surrogate-enhanced evolutionary annealing simplex algorithm for effective and efficient optimization of water resources problems on a budget, Environmental Modelling and Software, 77, 122–142, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2015.12.008, 2016.

    In water resources optimization problems, the objective function usually presumes to first run a simulation model and then evaluate its outputs. However, long simulation times may pose significant barriers to the procedure. Often, to obtain a solution within a reasonable time, the user has to substantially restrict the allowable number of function evaluations, thus terminating the search much earlier than required. A promising strategy to address these shortcomings is the use of surrogate modeling techniques. Here we introduce the Surrogate-Enhanced Evolutionary Annealing-Simplex (SEEAS) algorithm that couples the strengths of surrogate modeling with the effectiveness and efficiency of the evolutionary annealing-simplex method. SEEAS combines three different optimization approaches (evolutionary search, simulated annealing, downhill simplex). Its performance is benchmarked against other surrogate-assisted algorithms in several test functions and two water resources applications (model calibration, reservoir management). Results reveal the significant potential of using SEEAS in challenging optimization problems on a budget.

    Related works:

    • [33] Early presentation if EGU conference

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1587/2/documents/SEEAS_paper.pdf (4310 KB)

    Additional material:

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Dariane , A. B., and M. M. Javadianzadeh, Towards an efficient rainfall–runoff model through partitioning scheme, Water, 8, 63; doi:10.3390/w8020063, 2016.
    2. Yaseen, Z. M., O. Jaafar, R. C. Deo, O. Kisi, J. Adamowski, J. Quilty, and A. El-Shafie, Boost stream-flow forecasting model with extreme learning machine data-driven: A case study in a semi-arid region in Iraq, Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.09.035, 2016.
    3. Müller, R., and N. Schütze, Multi-objective optimization of multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems under high reliability constraints, Environmental Earth Sciences, 75:1278, doi:10.1007/s12665-016-6076-5, 2016.
    4. #Christelis, V., V. Bellos, and G. Tsakiris, Employing surrogate modelling for the calibration of a 2D flood simulation model, Sustainable Hydraulics in the Era of Global Change: Proceedings of the 4th IAHR Europe Congress (Liege, Belgium, 27-29 July 2016), A. S. Erpicum, M. Pirotton, B. Dewals, P. Archambeau (editors), CRC Press, 2016.

  1. I. Tsoukalas, and C. Makropoulos, A surrogate based optimization approach for the development of uncertainty-aware reservoir operational rules: the case of Nestos hydrosystem, Water Resources Management, 29 (13), 4719–4734, doi:10.1007/s11269-015-1086-8, 2015.

    Operation of large-scale hydropower reservoirs is a complex problem that involves conflicting objectives, such as hydropower generation and water supply. Deriving optimal operational rules is a challenging task due to the non-linearity of the system dynamics and the uncertainty of future inflows and water demands. A common approach to derive optimal control policies is to couple simulation models with optimization algorithms. This paper in order to investigate the performance of a future reservoir and safely infer about its significance employs stochastic simulation, thus long synthetically generated time-series and a multi-objective version of the Parameterization-Simulation-Optimization (PSO) framework to develop uncertainty-aware operational rules. Furthermore, in order to handle the high computational effort that ensues from that coupling we investigate the potential of a surrogate-based multi-objective optimization algorithm, ParEGO. The PSO framework is deployed with WEAP21 water resources management model as simulation engine and MATLAB for the implementation of optimization algorithms. A comparison between NSGAII and ParEGO optimization algorithms is performed to assess the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The aforementioned comparison showed that ParEGO provides efficient approximations of the Pareto front while reducing the computational effort required. Finally, the potential benefit and the significance of the future reservoir is underlined.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1569/1/documents/tsoukalas_WRM.pdf (2008 KB)

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Müller, R., and N. Schütze, Multi-objective optimization of multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems under high reliability constraints, Environmental Earth Sciences, 75:1278, doi:10.1007/s12665-016-6076-5, 2016.

  1. I. Tsoukalas, and C. Makropoulos, Multiobjective optimisation on a budget: Exploring surrogate modelling for robust multi-reservoir rules generation under hydrological uncertainty, Environmental Modelling and Software, 69, 396–413, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.09.023, 2015.

    Developing long term operation rules for multi-reservoir systems is complicated due to the number of decision variables, the non-linearity of system dynamics and the hydrological uncertainty. This uncertainty can be addressed by coupling simulation models with multi-objective optimisation algorithms driven by stochastically generated hydrological timeseries but the computational effort required imposes barriers to the exploration of the solution space. The paper addresses this by (a) employing a parsimonious multi-objective parameterization-simulation-optimization (PSO) framework, which incorporates hydrological uncertainty through stochastic simulation and allows the use of probabilistic objective functions and (b) by investigating the potential of multi-objective surrogate based optimisation (MOSBO) to significantly reduce the resulting computational effort. Three MOSBO algorithms are compared against two multi-objective evolutionary algorithms. Results suggest that MOSBOs are indeed able to provide robust, uncertainty-aware operation rules much faster, without significant loss of neither the generality of evolutionary algorithms nor of the knowledge embedded in domain-specific models.

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Müller, R., and N. Schütze, Multi-objective optimization of multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems under high reliability constraints, Environmental Earth Sciences, 75:1278, doi:10.1007/s12665-016-6076-5, 2016.

  1. D. Bouziotas, E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Water and the City: Exploring links between urban growth and water demand management., Journal of Hydroinformatics, 17 (2), doi:10.2166/hydro.2014.053, 2015.

    Urban water management is currently understood as a socio-technical problem, including both technologies and engineering interventions as well as socio-economic dimensions and contexts vis a vis both end users and institutions. In this framework, perhaps the most important driver of urban water demand, at the intersection between engineering, social and economic domains, is urban growth. This paper examines aspects of the interplay between the dynamics of urban growth and the urban water cycle. Specifically, a cellular automata urban growth model is re-engineered to provide growth patterns at the level of detail needed by an urban water cycle model. The resulting toolkit is able to simulate spatial changes in urban areas while simultaneously estimating their water demand impact under different water demand management scenarios, with an emphasis on distributed technologies whose applicability depends on urban form. The method and tools are tested in the case study of Mesogeia, Greece and conclusions are drawn, regarding both the performance of the urban growth model and the effectiveness of different urban water management practices.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1501/1/documents/Water-And-The-City_Preprint.pdf (763 KB)

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Bouziotas, D., and M. Ertsen, Socio-hydrology from the bottom up: A template for agent-based modeling in irrigation systems, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, doi:10.5194/hess-2017-107, 2017.

  1. P. Kossieris, S. Kozanis, A. Hashmi, E. Katsiri, L. Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, R. Farmani, C. Makropoulos, and D. Savic, A web-based platform for water efficient households, Procedia Engineering, 89, 1128–1135, 2014.

    The advent of ICT services on water sector offers new perspective towards sustainable water management. This paper presents an innovative web-based platform, targeting primarily the household end-users. The platform enables consumers to monitor and control, on real-time basis, the water and energy consumption of their household providing valuable information and feedback. At the same time, the platform further supports end-users to modify and improve their consumption profile via an interactive educational process that comprises a variety of online tools and applications. This paper discusses the rationale, structure and technologies upon which the platform has been developed and presents an early prototype of the various tools, applications and facilities.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1590/1/documents/kossieris_procedia2014.pdf (1131 KB)

  1. P. Kossieris, Panayiotakis, K. Tzouka, E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, An e-Learning approach for improving household water efficiency, Procedia Engineering, WDSA 2014, Bari, Italy, Water Distribution Systems Analysis, 2014.

    This paper, presents the development of an e-learning platform, associated with smart metering infrastructure, developed in Moodle. The platform aims to support further householders to improve the water efficiency of their household by understanding their current consumption and identifying practices, technologies that can save water. The platform is built around an interactive, multi-stage, educational process, which begins with a preparatory ("Exposing") stage in which the users receive useful information and feedback about their "water identity", continuous through a self-assessment ("Understanding") stage and finally provides (customized) smart and cost-effective tips and suggestions ("Acting" stage). This paper presents the components of the platform, including, inter alia, FAQ's, quizzes, advanced water calculators and customized tips.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1502/3/documents/Paper_0272_Panagiotis_Kossieris_.pdf (554 KB)

    Additional material:

  1. E. Rozos, C. Makropoulos, and C. Maksimovic, Rethinking urban areas: an example of an integrated blue-green approach, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 13 (6), 1534–1542, doi:10.2166/ws.2013.140, 2013.

    The provision of high quality urban water services, the assets of which are often conceptualised as ‘blue infrastructure’, is essential for public health and quality of life in the cities. On the other hand, parks, recreation grounds, gardens, green roofs and in general ‘green infrastructure’, provide a range of (urban) ecosystem services (incl. quality of life and aesthetics) and could also be thought of as inter alia contributors to the mitigation of floods, droughts, noise, air pollution and Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects, improvement of biodiversity, amenity values and human health. Currently, these ‘blue’ and ‘green’ assets/infrastructure are planned to operate as two separate systems despite the obvious interactions between them (for example, low runoff coefficient of green areas resulting in reduction of stormwater flows, and irrigation of green areas by potable water in increasing pressure on water supply system). This study explores the prospects of a more integrated ‘blue-green’ approach – tested at the scale of a household. Specifically, UWOT (the Urban Water Optioneering Tool) was extended and used to assess the potential benefits of a scheme that employed locally treated greywater along with harvested rainwater for irrigating a green roof. The results of the simulations indicated that the blue-green approach combined the benefits of both ‘green’ and ‘blue’ technologies/services and at the same time minimised the disadvantages of each when installed separately.

  1. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Source to tap urban water cycle modelling, Environmental Modelling and Software, 41, 139–150, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.11.015, Elsevier, 1 March 2013.

    The continuous expansion of urban areas is associated with increased water demand, both for domestic and non-domestic uses. To cover this additional demand, centralised infrastructure, such as water supply and distribution networks tend to become more and more complicated and are eventually over-extended with adverse effects on their reliability. To address this, there exist two main strategies: (a) Tools and algorithms are employed to optimise the operation of the external water supply system, in an effort to minimise risk of failure to cover the demand (either due to the limited availability of water resources or due to the limited capacity of the transmission system and treatment plants) and (b) demand management is employed to reduce the water demand per capita. Dedicated tools do exist to support the implementation of these two strategies separately. However, there is currently no tool capable of handling the complete urban water system, from source to tap, allowing for an investigation of these two strategies at the same time and thus exploring synergies between the two. This paper presents a new version of the UWOT model (Makropoulos et al., 2008), which adopts a metabolism modelling approach and is now capable of simulating the complete urban water cycle from source to tap and back again: the tool simulates the whole water supply network from the generation of demand at the household level to the water reservoirs and tracks wastewater generation from the household through the wastewater system and the treatment plants to the water bodies. UWOT functionality is demonstrated in the case of the water system of Athens and outputs are compared against the current operational tool used by the Water Company of Athens. Results are presented and discussed: The discussion highlights the conditions under which a single source-to-tap model is more advantageous than dedicated subsystem models.

    Additional material:

  1. S.M. Papalexiou, D. Koutsoyiannis, and C. Makropoulos, How extreme is extreme? An assessment of daily rainfall distribution tails, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 851–862, doi:10.5194/hess-17-851-2013, 2013.

    The upper part of a probability distribution, usually known as the tail, governs both the magnitude and the frequency of extreme events. The tail behaviour of all probability distributions may be, loosely speaking, categorized in two families: heavy-tailed and light-tailed distributions, with the latter generating more “mild” and infrequent extremes compared to the former. This emphasizes how important for hydrological design is to assess correctly the tail behaviour. Traditionally, the wet-day daily rainfall has been described by light-tailed distributions like the Gamma, although heavier-tailed distributions have also been proposed and used, e.g. the Lognormal, the Pareto, the Kappa, and others. Here, we investigate the issue of tails for daily rainfall by comparing the up- per part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with four common theoretical tails: those of the Pareto, Lognormal, Weibull and Gamma distributions. Specifically, we use 15 029 daily rainfall records from around the world with record lengths from to 163 yr. The analysis shows that heavier-tailed distributions are in better agreement with the observed rainfall extremes than the more often used lighter tailed distributions, with clear implications on extreme event modelling and engineering design.

    Remarks:

    The initial version of the article and the discussion in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions (9, 5757–5778, 2012) can be seen at http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hessd-9-5757-2012.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1231/1/documents/hess-17-851-2013.pdf (3389 KB)

    Additional material:

    See also: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-17-851-2013

    Works that cite this document: View on Google Scholar or ResearchGate

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Breinl, K., T. Turkington and M. Stowasser, Stochastic generation of multi-site daily precipitation for applications in risk management, Journal of Hydrology, 498, 23-35, 2013.
    2. #Adirosi, E., L. Baldini, F. Lombardo, F. Russo and F. Napolitano, Comparison of different fittings of experimental DSD, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1558, 1669-1672, 2013.
    3. Hitchens, N. M., H. E. Brooks and R. S. Schumacher, Spatial and temporal characteristics of heavy hourly rainfall in the United States, Mon. Wea. Rev, 141, 4564–4575, 2013.
    4. Panagoulia, D., and E. I. Vlahogianni, Non-linear dynamics and recurrence analysis of extreme precipitation for observed and general circulation model generated climates, Hydrological Processes, 28(4), 2281–2292, 2014.
    5. Serinaldi, F., and C. G. Kilsby, Simulating daily rainfall fields over large areas for collective risk estimation, Journal of Hydrology, 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.02.043, 2014.
    6. Serinaldi, F., and C. G. Kilsby, Rainfall extremes: Toward reconciliation after the battle of distributions, Water Resources Research, 50 (1), 336-352, 2014.
    7. Breinl, K., T. Turkington and M. Stowasser, Simulating daily precipitation and temperature: a weather generation framework for assessing hydrometeorological hazards, Meteorological Applications, 10.1002/met.1459, 2014.
    8. Alghazali, N. O. S., and D. A. H. Alawadi, Fitting statistical distributions of monthly rainfall for some Iraqi stations, Civil and Environmental Research, 6 (6), 40-46, 2014.
    9. Neykov, N. M., P. N. Neytchev and W. Zucchini, Stochastic daily precipitation model with a heavy-tailed component, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 14 (9), 2321-2335, 2014.
    10. Salinas, J. L., A. Castellarin, A. Viglione, S. Kohnová and T. R. Kjeldsen, Regional parent flood frequency distributions in Europe – Part 1: Is the GEV model suitable as a pan-European parent?, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4381-4389, 10.5194/hess-18-4381-2014, 2014.
    11. #Keighley, T., T. Longden, S. Mathew and S. Trück, Quantifying Catastrophic and Climate Impacted Hazards Based on Local Expert Opinions, FEEM Working Paper No. 093.2014, 2014.
    12. Serinaldi, F., and C.G. Kilsby, Stationarity is undead: Uncertainty dominates the distribution of extremes, Advances in Water Resources, 77, 17-36, 2015.
    13. Li, Z., Z. Li, W. Zhao and Y. Wang, Probability modeling of precipitation extremes over two river basins in northwest of China, Advances in Meteorology, art. no. 374127, 10.1155/2015/374127, 2015.
    14. Adirosi, E., L. Baldini, L. Lombardo, F. Russo, F. Napolitano, E. Volpi and A. Tokay, Comparison of different fittings of drop spectra for rainfall retrievals, Advances in Water Resources, 83, 55-67, 2015.
    15. Cavanaugh, N.R., A. Gershunov, A.K. Panorska and T.J. Kozubowski, The probability distribution of intense daily precipitation, Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (5), 1560-1567, 2015.
    16. Sherly, M., S. Karmakar, T. Chan and C. Rau, Design rainfall framework using multivariate parametric-nonparametric approach, J. Hydrol. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001256, 04015049, 2015.
    17. Bellprat, O., F.C. Lott, C. Gulizia, H.R. Parker, L.A. Pampuch, I. Pinto, A. Ciavarella, P.A. Stott, Unusual past dry and wet rainy seasons over Southern Africa and South America from a climate perspective, Weather and Climate Extremes, 9, 36-46, 2015.

  1. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Assessing the combined benefits of water recycling technologies by modelling the total urban water cycle, Urban Water Journal, 9 (1), doi:10.1080/1573062X.2011.630096, February 2012.

    This study investigates the potential benefits of new technologies, modern appliance, and innovative techniques that help to improve the performance of the urban water cycle. Urbanisation is a major source of additional pressures (both qualitative and quantitative) on the environment. For example abstractions to cover the increased demands for water supply or alterations of the topographic and geomorphologic properties of the land cover result in considerable changes to the dynamics of the hydrosystem (change of average and maximum values of flows). Sustainable, water-aware technologies, like SUstainable Drainage Systems (SUDS) and rainwater harvesting schemes, can be implemented to reduce these adverse effects. These technologies introduce interactions between the components of the urban water cycle. Rainwater harvesting for example, apart from the potable water demand reduction, may have significant influence on the generated runoff. Consequently, an integrated modelling of the urban water cycle is necessary for the simulation of the water-aware technologies and the identification of their combined benefits. In this study, two hypothetical developments implement rainwater harvesting schemes and SUDS, and are simulated using the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT), which is able of using rainfall time series of arbitrary time step. The two hypothetical developments were studied to investigate the contribution of the water-aware technologies to the minimisation of the environmental pressures. Significantly different urban density was assigned to these developments to highlight the influence of urban density on the efficiency and reliability of the water-aware technologies. The results indicate that: (a) water-saving schemes like rainwater harvesting and greywater treatment can reduce significantly the pressures of new developments (e.g. reduction of potable water demand by 27%); (b) the reliability of the water-aware technologies decreases with urban density; (c) if localised rainwater harvesting is implemented then the efficiency of the water appliances influences considerably the generated runoff.

    Additional material:

  1. E. Rozos, C. Makropoulos, and D. Butler, Design robustness of local water-recycling schemes, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management - ASCE, 136 (5), 531–538, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000067, 2010.

    The implementation of local water recycling and reuse practices is considered as a possible approach to managing issues of water scarcity. The sustainable design and implementation of a water recycle/reuse scheme has to achieve an optimum compromise between costs (including energy) and benefits (potable water demand reduction). Another factor that should be taken into account is the influence of potential changes in climatic conditions to the scheme’s efficiency. These issues were assessed in this study using the urban water optioneering tool. Two water-recycling schemes, a rainwater harvesting and a combination of rainwater harvesting and local greywater recycling, were assessed. The trade-off between potable water demand reduction, capital/operational cost, and energy consumption of the two schemes was derived under three basic climatic conditions (oceanic, Mediterranean, and desert) using evolutionary optimization. Furthermore, the impact of changing climatic conditions on the suggested schemes was analyzed to assess the robustness of the proposed design choices to climatic changes. The results indicate that schemes that are efficient in their use of local greywater are less susceptible to changes in climatic conditions, while schemes based exclusively on rainwater harvesting are more susceptible to changes the more efficient they become.

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Tong Thi Hoang Duong, Avner Adin, David Jackman, Peter van der Steen, Kala Vairavamoorthy, Urban water management strategies based on a total urban water cycle model and energy aspects – Case study for Tel Aviv, Urban Water Journal, Vol. 8, Iss. 2, 2011.
    2. Dragan A. Savić, Josef Bicik, Mark S. Morley, A DSS generator for multiobjective optimisation of spreadsheet-based models, Environmental Modelling and Software, Volume 26, Issue 5, May 2011, Pages 551-561, ISSN 1364-8152
    3. Newman, J. P., G. C. Dandy, and H. R. Maier, Multiobjective optimization of cluster-scale urban water systems investigating alternative water sources and level of decentralization, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/2013WR015233, 2014.

  1. D. Koutsoyiannis, C. Makropoulos, A. Langousis, S. Baki, A. Efstratiadis, A. Christofides, G. Karavokiros, and N. Mamassis, Climate, hydrology, energy, water: recognizing uncertainty and seeking sustainability, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 247–257, doi:10.5194/hess-13-247-2009, 2009.

    Since 1990 extensive funds have been spent on research in climate change. Although Earth Sciences, including climatology and hydrology, have benefited significantly, progress has proved incommensurate with the effort and funds, perhaps because these disciplines were perceived as “tools” subservient to the needs of the climate change enterprise rather than autonomous sciences. At the same time, research was misleadingly focused more on the “symptom”, i.e. the emission of greenhouse gases, than on the “illness”, i.e. the unsustainability of fossil fuel-based energy production. Unless energy saving and use of renewable resources become the norm, there is a real risk of severe socioeconomic crisis in the not-too-distant future. A framework for drastic paradigm change is needed, in which water plays a central role, due to its unique link to all forms of renewable energy, from production (hydro and wave power) to storage (for time-varying wind and solar sources), to biofuel production (irrigation). The extended role of water should be considered in parallel to its other uses, domestic, agricultural and industrial. Hydrology, the science of water on Earth, must move towards this new paradigm by radically rethinking its fundamentals, which are unjustifiably trapped in the 19th-century myths of deterministic theories and the zeal to eliminate uncertainty. Guidance is offered by modern statistical and quantum physics, which reveal the intrinsic character of uncertainty/entropy in nature, thus advancing towards a new understanding and modelling of physical processes, which is central to the effective use of renewable energy and water resources.

    Remarks:

    Blogs and forums that have discussed this article: Climate science; Vertical news; Outside the cube.

    Update 2011-09-26: The removed video of the panel discussion of Nobelists entitled “Climate Changes and Energy Challenges” (held in the framework of the 2008 Meeting of Nobel Laureates at Lindau on Physics) which is referenced in footnote 1 of the paper, still cannot be located online. However, Larry Gould has an audio file of the discussion here.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/878/17/documents/hess-13-247-2009.pdf (1476 KB)

    Additional material:

    See also: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-13-247-2009

    Works that cite this document: View on Google Scholar or ResearchGate

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Andréassian, V., C. Perrin, L. Berthet, N. Le Moine, J. Lerat, C. Loumagne, L. Oudin, T. Mathevet, M.-H. Ramos, and A. Valéry, HESS Opinions "Crash tests for a standardized evaluation of hydrological models", Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 1757-1764, 2009.
    2. Hunt, D. V. L., I. Jefferson, M. R. Gaterell, and C. D. F. Rogers, Planning for sustainable utility infrastructure, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Urban Design and Planning, 162(DP4), 187-201, 2009.
    3. Makropoulos, C. K., and D. Butler, Distributed water infrastructure for sustainable communities, Water Resources Management, 24(11), 2795-2816, 2010.
    4. Jódar, J., J. Carrera, and A. Cruz, Irrigation enhances precipitation at the mountains downwind, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14, 2003-2010, 2010.
    5. #Ladanai, S., and J. Vinterbäck, Biomass for Energy versus Food and Feed, Land Use Analyses and Water Supply, Report 022, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, ISSN 1654-9406, Uppsala, 2010.
    6. Ward, J. D., A. D. Werner, W. P. Nel, and S. Beecham, The influence of constrained fossil fuel emissions scenarios on climate and water resource projections, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15, 1879-1893, 2011.
    7. #Montanari, A, Uncertainty of hydrological predictions, In: P. Wilderer (ed.) Treatise on Water Science, Vol. 2, 459–478, Oxford Academic Press, 2011.
    8. #Willems, P., J. Olsson, K. Arnbjerg-Nielsen, S. Beecham, A. Pathirana, I. Bulow Gregersen, H. Madsen, V.-T.-V. Nguyen, Practices and Impacts of Climate Change on Rainfall Extremes and Urban Drainage, IWA Publishing, London, 2012.
    9. Andrés-Doménech, I., A. Montanari and J. B. Marco, Efficiency of storm detention tanks for urban drainage systems under climate variability, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 138 (1), 36-46, 2012.
    10. Montanari, A., Hydrology of the Po River: looking for changing patterns in river discharge, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 3739-3747, doi:10.5194/hess-16-3739-2012, 2012.
    11. Voulvoulis, N., Water and sanitation provision in a low carbon society: The need for a systems approach, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 4(4), 041403, 2012.
    12. #Skaggs, R., K. A. Hibbard, T. C. Janetos, and J. S. Rice, Climate and energy-water-land system interactions, Technical report to the U.S. Department of Energy in Support of the National Climate Assessment, Report No. PNNL-21185, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 152 pp., 2012.
    13. Gunasekara, N. K., S. Kazama, D. Yamazaki and T. Oki, The effects of country-level population policy for enhancing adaptation to climate change, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4429-4440, 2013.
    14. Nastos, P. T., N. Politi, and J. Kapsomenakis, Spatial and temporal variability of the aridity index in Greece, Atmospheric Research, 19, 140-152, 2013.
    15. Hrachowitz, M., H.H.G. Savenije, G. Blöschl, J.J. McDonnell, M. Sivapalan, J.W. Pomeroy, B. Arheimer, T. Blume, M.P. Clark, U. Ehret, F. Fenicia, J.E. Freer, A. Gelfan, H.V. Gupta, D.A. Hughes, R.W. Hut, A. Montanari, S. Pande, D. Tetzlaff, P.A. Troch, S. Uhlenbrook, T. Wagener, H.C. Winsemius, R.A. Woods, E. Zehe, and C. Cudennec, A decade of Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB) — a review, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 58(6), 1198-1255, 2013.
    16. Thompson, S. E., M. Sivapalan, C. J. Harman, V. Srinivasan, M. R. Hipsey, P. Reed, A. Montanari and G. and Blöschl, Developing predictive insight into changing water systems: use-inspired hydrologic science for the Anthropocene, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 5013-5039, 2013.
    17. #Voulvoulis, N., The potential of water reuse as a management option for water security under the ecosystem services approach, Win4Life Conference, Tinos Island, Greece, 2013.
    18. Dette, H., and K. Sen, Goodness-of-fit tests in long-range dependent processes under fixed alternatives, ESAIM: Probability and Statistics, 17, 432-443, 2013.
    19. Ilich, N., An effective three-step algorithm for multi-site generation of stochastic weekly hydrological time series, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59 (1), 85-98, 2014.
    20. Jain, S., Reference climate and water data networks for India, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 20(4), 02515001, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001170, 2015.
    21. Voulvoulis, N., The potential of water reuse as a management option for water security under the ecosystem services approach, Desalination and Water Treatment, 53 (12), 3263-3271, 2015.
    22. #Rohli, R. V., Overview of applied climatology and water/energy resources, Selected Readings in Applied Climatology, R. V. Rohli and T. A. Joyner (editors), 144-155, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015.
    23. #Kim, S.S.H., J.D. Hughes, D. Dutta, and J. Vaze, Why do sub-period consistency calibrations outperform traditional optimisations in streamflow prediction? Proceedings of 21st International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, 2061-2067, Gold Coast, Australia, 2015.
    24. Kim, S. S. H., J. D. Hughes, J. Chen, D. Dutta, and J. Vaze, Determining probability distributions of parameter performances for time-series model calibration: A river system trial, Journal of Hydrology, 530, 361–371, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.09.073, 2015.
    25. Clark, C., Two rural temperature records in Somerset, UK, Weather, 70(10), 280-284, doi:10.1002/wea.2512, 2015.
    26. Tsonis, A. A., Randomness: a property of the mathematical and physical systems, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 61(9), 1591-1610, doi:10.1080/02626667.2014.992434, 2016.
    27. Di Baldassarre, G., L. Brandimarte, and K. Beven, The seventh facet of uncertainty: wrong assumptions, unknowns and surprises in the dynamics of human-water systems, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 61(9), 1748-1758, doi:10.1080/02626667.2015.1091460, 2016.
    28. Chrs, C. C., Models, the establishment, and the real world: Why do so many flood problems remain in the UK?, Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 5, 44-59, doi:10.4236/gep.2017.52004, 2017.
    29. Madani, E. M., P. E. Jansson, and I. Babelon, Differences in water balance between grassland and forest watersheds using long-term data, derived using the CoupModel, Hydrology Research, doi:10.2166/nh.2017.154, 2017.

  1. C. Makropoulos, D. Koutsoyiannis, M. Stanic, S. Djordevic, D. Prodanovic, T. Dasic, S. Prohaska, C. Maksimovic, and H. S. Wheater, A multi-model approach to the simulation of large scale karst flows, Journal of Hydrology, 348 (3-4), 412–424, 2008.

    The possible effects of water transfer through a tunnel from Fatnicko Polje to Bileca Reservoir on the hydrologic regime of the Bregava River located in Eastern Herzegovina, in an area characterised by a predominantly karstic terrain, are studied. Three different simulation models of the area were developed and their predictions compared under a range of current and future hydrological and operational management conditions. These are based on a range of modelling approaches from a simplified conceptual approach to a quasi-physically based one. Despite the large complexity of the natural system, the models gave good fits to existing flow data with the most simplified model providing the closest agreement to historical flows. Calibrated models were used to study the possible effects of the intervention under a range of operational scenarios and identify the sources of the associated uncertainties. The results of the work suggest that the system of tunnels in question has a favourable effect in reducing flood hazard in the area, thus liberating scarce land resources for agriculture, and in reducing flows in the Bregava River (especially high flows). It is also suggested that a significant reduction in the uncertainty of modelling the karstic environment can be achieved by an appropriate, complementary combination of modelling approaches viewed as a multi-model ensemble.

    Additional material:

    See also: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.10.011

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Epting, J., D. Romanov, P. Huggenberger, and G. Kaufmann, Integrating field and numerical modeling methods for applied urban karst hydrogeology, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1163-1184, 2009.
    2. Gattinoni, P., and V. Francani, Depletion risk assessment of the Nossana Spring (Bergamo, Italy) based on the stochastic modeling of recharge, Hydrogeology Journal, 18 (2), 325-337, 2010.
    3. #Makropoulos, C., E. Safiolea, S. Baki, E. Douka, A. Stamou and M. Mimikou, An integrated, multi-modelling approach for the assessment of water quality: lessons from the Pinios River case in Greece, International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (iEMSs), 2010 International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, Modelling for Environment’s Sake, Fifth Biennial Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, D. A. Swayne, Wanhong Yang, A. A. Voinov, A. Rizzoli, T. Filatova (Eds.), 2010.
    4. Bauwens, A., C. Sohier and A. Degré, Hydrological response to climate change in the Lesse and the Vesdre catchments: contribution of a physically based model (Wallonia, Belgium), Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1745-1756, doi: 10.5194/hess-15-1745-2011, 2011.
    5. #Kukuric, N., van der Gun, J., Vasak, S., Bonacci, O., Polshkova, I., Tujchneider, O., Perez, M., Paris, M., D'elia, M., Ngatcha, B. N., Mudry, J., Chadha, D. K., Wendland, F., Berthold, G., Blum, A., Fritsche, H.-G., Kunkel, R., Wolter, R., Drobot, R., Szucs, P., Brouyere, S., Minciuna, M.-N., Lenart, L., Dassargues, A., Stevanović, Z., Kozák, P., Lazić, M., Szanyi, J., Polomčić, D., Kovács, B., Török, J., Milanović, S., Hajdin, B., Papic, P., Meglič, P. and Prestor, J., Transboundary Aquifers, in Transboundary Water Resources Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach (eds J. Ganoulis, A. Aureli and J. Fried), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, doi: 10.1002/9783527636655.ch4, 2011.
    6. Long, Y. Q., W. Li, W. X. Lu and T. T. Cui, Modeling the recovery of the spring flow and groundwater level in a depleted karst aquifer - a case study of the Jinci Spring, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 448-453, 989-994, 2013.
    7. Long, Y., T. Cui, Z. Yang, W. Li and Y. Guo, A coupled karst-porous groundwater model based on the adapted general head boundary, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 12 (9), 1757-1762, 2013.
    8. #Bonacci, O., Poljes, ponors and their catchments, Treatise on Geomorphology, 6, 112-120, 2013.
    9. Raynaud, F., V. Borrell-Estupina, S. Pistre, S. Van-Exter, N. Bourgeois, A. Dezetter and E. Servat, Combining hydraulic model, hydrogeomorphological observations and chemical analyses of surface waters to improve knowledge on karst flash floods genesis, Proc. IAHS, 369, 55-60, 10.5194/piahs-369-55-2015, 2015.
    10. Merheb, M., R. Moussa, C. Abdallah, F. Colin, C. Perrin, and N. Baghdadi, Hydrological response characteristics of Mediterranean catchments at different time scales: a meta-analysis, Hydrological Sciences Journal, doi:10.1080/02626667.2016.1140174, 2016.

Book chapters and fully evaluated conference publications

  1. E. Rozos, I. Tsoukalas, K. Ripis, E. Smeti, and C. Makropoulos, Turning black into green: ecosystem services from treated wastewater, 13th IWA Specialized Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems, Athens, Greece, National Technical University of Athens, 2016, (in press).

    In order to reduce the impact of the urban effluents on the environment, modern societies have imposed restrictions regarding the quality of the disposals. For this reason, in the majority of the western world cities, the wastewater is treated before disposal. However, on the other side of the urban water cycle, water abstractions keep putting an increasing pressure on the water resources. As a countermeasure, treated wastewater is used occasionally as an alternative resource by employing large scale infrastructure to treat and supply water for either irrigation or industrial uses. Despite the existence of numerous successful applications, this practice is not very common mainly because of the increased capital and operational costs, usually exceeding the cost of fresh water. The response of the market to this drawback was to introduce in-situ small scale treatment units to cover local water needs. In this study, we assess the benefits of a compact wastewater treatment unit that is used to provide water for irrigating a green area. Apart from the aesthetic improvement, benefits are expected because of the evaporative cooling (latent heat), which reduce the air temperature. A pilot scheme was set up in KEREFYT, the research centre of Athens water supply company. This scheme was simulated with UWOT model to estimate the heat fluxes and the results were fed into Energy2D (a model that simulates heat transfer) to estimate the expected temperature drop.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1600/1/documents/Manuscript_QiNArbH.pdf (509 KB)

  1. I. Tsoukalas, P. Dimas, and C. Makropoulos, Hydrosystem optimization on a budget: Investigating the potential of surrogate based optimization techniques, 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2015), Global Network on Environmental Science and Technology, University of the Aegean, 2015.

    Development of uncertainty-aware operational rules for multi-reservoir systems is a demanding and challenging task due to the complexity of the system dynamics, the number of decision variables and the hydrological uncertainty. In order to overcome this issue the parsimonious parameterization-simulation-optimization (PSO) framework is employed coupled with stochastically generated hydrological time-series. However, when the simulation model requires long computational time this coupling imposes a computational barrier to the framework. The purpose of this paper is threefold: a) Investigate the potential of Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) algorithm (and its variants) which is capable of reaching global optima within a few simulation model evaluations (~500 or less). b) Extend the capabilities of WEAP21 water resources management model by using it within PSO framework (named WEAP21-PSO) and c) Validate and compare the results of WEAP21-PSO using the well-known hydrosystem management model Hydronomeas coupled with Evolutionary Annealing Simplex (EAS) optimization algorithm. Results confirm that EGO has the potential and the capabilities to handle computationally demanding problems and furthermore is capable of locating the optimal solution within few simulation model evaluations and that the WEAP21-PSO framework performs well at the task at hand.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1574/1/documents/cest2015_00162_oral_paper.pdf (475 KB)

    See also: http://cest.gnest.org/cest15proceedings/public_html/papers/cest2015_00162_oral_paper.pdf

  1. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Preparing appropriate water policies for sd analysis: a broad-brush review on water conservation practices, 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2015), Global Network on Environmental Science and Technology, University of the Aegean, Rhodes, Greece, 2015.

    Water scarcity is one of the most serious modern-day problems with a continuously growing list of affected regions. In response, both international organizations and local governments have officially acknowledged this problem and have acted accordingly either by funding related research programs (the scientific community has been studying water scarcity for the last few decades) or by directly taking water demand management measures or by appropriate subsidies. As a result, there are nowadays examples of good practices/techniques that achieve considerable reduction of water demand. The scientific community, apart from suggesting new ideas, provides also feedbacks on these practices/techniques through scientific publications (e.g Zhang et al., 2009; March et al. 2004; Brewer et al. 2001; Surendran and Wheatley, 1998), which are usually thorough assessments of case studies based on some specific strategy, applied at a specific scale and serving a single sector. These reviews are valuable sources for further specialized studies and can serve as guidelines for the implementation of similar technical applications. However, the objective of these reviews is not to provide a broad-perspective picture of the available options suitable for each part of the urban water cycle. In this study, it is attempted to give a rough idea of this “broad picture” by providing an index of the representative best practices. To compile this index, first, the successful applications of water management practices/techniques found in literature were classified using three category types: the sector, the application scale and the employed water reduction strategy. Then, the basic characteristics of the representative best practices were assembled and presented in a compact and organized manner. These indicated best water management practices could be used to appropriately formulate representative water policies resulting from a system dynamics (SD) analysis that will take into account various socio-economic parameters. This will hopefully facilitate a quick uptake of the most promising options for each type of application.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1573/1/documents/CEST2015_00131_Presentation.pdf (612 KB)

    Additional material:

  1. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Urban regeneration and optimal water demand management, 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2015), Global Network on Environmental Science and Technology, University of the Aegean, Rhodes, Greece, 2015.

    Increasing water scarcity has drawn attention to the management of urban water demand, which can be achieved through the re-engineering of the urban water cycle in order to implement water reuse practices. Examples of these new practices include the use of locally treated water for a variety of non-potable uses at household or neighbour scales. However, the successful design and implementation of these new practices is not straightforward. The efficiency of a rainwater harvesting scheme, for example, can be greatly reduced if the local tank is under-dimensioned, whereas the maximum efficiency is achieved with the tank capacity exceeding a threshold, which depends on the statistical profile of both the demand and supply (rainfall). The identification of this threshold requires modelling of the rainwater recycling scheme using long historical timeseries (or synthetically generated with a stochastic model) to capture the statistics of the supply/demand. It should be noted that the tanks per se are relatively cheap, but the space to install them and the preparations required (e.g. excavations in case of underground installation) can have significant costs. Therefore, it is imperative to correctly identify the optimum capacity of a tank. Another costly installation required for a rainwater recycle scheme is the dual reticulation, which, in case of retrofitting, translates into expensive plumbing interventions of which the payback period (if any) is very long. However, dual reticulation can be easily implemented during the construction of a building. Such an opportunity is offered in the region of Eleonas, Athens, Greece. Recently, this area has attracted the attention of many urban planners, who have suggested alternative regeneration scenarios: the Agrarian (the area as a green reservoir for the surrounding city), the Urban-Agrarian (extensive green areas along with residential areas and transportation services) and the Metropolitan (transformation of Eleonas into the new Central Business District for Athens). In this study, these three alternative regeneration scenarios were assessed with UWOT. UWOT is a bottom-up urban water model that simulates the generation, aggregation and routing of demand signals (potable water demand, runoff discharge demand, and wastewater discharge demand). First, UWOT was used to 'scan' the water networks of the three scenarios (assuming conventional water network) to identify the most intense water consumers. Afterwards, a local rainwater harvesting scheme was introduced in the networks of the major water consumers to reduce the water demand on-the-spot. Then, UWOT along with an optimization algorithm were used to properly dimension this rainwater harvesting scheme. The results of the optimization indicated that the runoff volume could be considerably reduced, which will further improve the ecological footprint of the planned regeneration.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1572/1/documents/CEST2015_00129_RozosEtAl.pdf (230 KB)

    Additional material:

  1. E. Rozos, Y. Photis, and C. Makropoulos, Water demand management in the expanding urban areas of south Attica, 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2015), Global Network on Environmental Science and Technology, University of the Aegean, Rhodes, Greece, 2015.

    Modern decentralized water-aware technologies (including for example grey water recycling and rainwater harvesting) enable water reuse at the scale of household or neighbourhood. Such options reduce the pressure on the infrastructure and alleviate the need for upgrading the centralized infrastructure, hence reducing the cost of urban growth. To study the benefits of the water-aware technologies on expanding urban areas, an urban water cycle and a land use model were coupled. The former, UWOT, is a bottom-up urban water model that simulates the generation, aggregation and routing of demand signals (potable water demand, runoff discharge demand, and wastewater discharge demand). The latter, SLEUTH, is a cellular automaton model of urban land use change (see project GIGALOPOLIS). The coupling of UWOT and SLEUTH was tested in South Attica. Cellular automaton models use a group of discrete units to simulate the land use evolution of the studied area. For this reason, classes of land uses should be formed based on a set of predefined criteria. The criteria of the classification of the South Attica were the population per cell, the total built area per cell and the population per building. SLEUTH was calibrated using the 2001-2011 census data. Then, SLEUTH was used to simulate the urban expansion and intensification. The simulation period spanned from 2011 to 2031. Afterwards, the results of SLEUTH were fed into UWOT, which simulated the conventional network of this area to estimate the evolution of the water demand, the runoff and the wastewater generation. Finally, a sequence of simulations were performed assuming that the network of all new buildings (those built between 2011 and 2031) incorporated water-saving schemes and that water-saving schemes were being installed in the existing buildings (those built before 2011) with a constant penetration rate. The only difference among the simulations of this sequence was the time of the initiation of the water-saving schemes installation. This provided a nomograph with a group of lines corresponding to potable water demand for different intervention timings and various penetration rates. This nomograph could be used in supporting either the planning of the expansion of the water services to newly urbanized areas and/or the decisions regarding the maintenance and capacity increase of the existing infrastructure.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1571/1/documents/CEST2015_00128_RozosEtAl.pdf (268 KB)

    Additional material:

  1. S. Baki, I. Koutiva, and C. Makropoulos, A hybrid artificial intelligence modelling framework for the simulation of the complete, socio-technical, urban water system, 2012 International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, Managing Resources of a Limited Planet, Leipzig, International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, 2012.

    A (truly) integrated approach to the management of urban water should take into account, further to the characteristics of the technical system, a range of socio-economic processes and interactions – combined into what has been termed the “socio-technical system”. This is by no means an easy endeavour: conventional simulation tools often fail to capture socio-economic processes and their interactions with the technical urban water system. Variables depicting the socioeconomic environment are usually static and estimated from literature and/or expert opinion. To address this issue, new socio-technical modelling approaches are emerging aiming to explicitly account for the feedback loops between the socioeconomic environment and the urban water system. In this paper we develop a hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) conceptual model using System Dynamics (SD), Agent Based Modelling (ABM) and urban water modelling tools to investigate the urban water system’s response to different policies. The SD model simulates the broader socio-economic, natural and technical context and links to more specialised tools for the social and technical sub-systems: For the social subsystem, ABM is used to model preferences and decisions of water users, whereas for the technical system, the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT) is used to provide a detailed representation of the urban water cycle, affected by the endusers’ decisions. The proposed modelling framework allows for the dynamic nature of the socio-economic variables to be explicitly included in the assessment in order to test the effectiveness of different policies, such as awareness raising campaigns, and dynamically simulate the subsequent response of the urban water system in time. The paper discusses the integration of urban water and social simulation models at a higher modelling level via a System Dynamics platform and the suitability of such a framework for the assessment of the performance and pressures on urban water systems under varying conditions and scenarios.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1312/1/documents/I5_0781_Baki_et_al.pdf (1543 KB)

    See also: http://www.iemss.org/society/index.php/iemss-2012-proceedings

  1. I. Koutiva, and C. Makropoulos, Towards adaptive water resources management: simulating the complete socio-technical system through computational intelligence, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, A998–A1006, Rhodes, 2011.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1180/1/documents/CEST2011AdaptiveManagemet.pdf (77 KB)

  1. E. Rozos, S. Baki, D. Bouziotas, and C. Makropoulos, Exploring the link between urban development and water demand: The impact of water-aware technologies and options, Computing and Control for the Water Industry (CCWI) 2011, Exeter, UK, CCWI2011-311, University of Exeter, 2011.

    In conventional urban planning, water demand is covered exclusively by potable water supply and wastewater is directly conducted to the sewers. One of the disadvantages of this practice is that the expansion of an urban area puts additional pressure on existing water infrastructure (both water supply and wastewater networks), which may result in capacity exceedance. In such cases, the required upgrades of existing infrastructure are slow and potentially very costly. On the other hand, modern decentralized water-aware technologies (including for example grey water recycling and rainwater harvesting) enable water reuse at the scale of a household or a neighbourhood. Such options reduce the pressure on the infrastructure and alleviate the need for upgrading centralized infrastructure, hence reducing the cost of urban growth. In an attempt to quantify the potential benefits of these technologies we coupled an urban water management model with a land-use model based on Cellular Automata (CA). The land-use model produces scenarios of urban growth/transformation, which are then assessed through the use of an urban water management model. The assessment is based on indicators including potable water demand, peak runoff discharge and volume of produced waste water. The final result is a representation of the evolution of these indicators as a function of urban growth contrasting conventional and innovative practices.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1152/1/documents/CCWI2011_311.pdf (476 KB)

    Additional material:

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Tong Thi Hoang Duong, Avner Adin, David Jackman, Peter van der Steen, Kala Vairavamoorthy, Urban water management strategies based on a total urban water cycle model and energy aspects – Case study for Tel Aviv, Urban Water Journal, Vol. 8, Iss. 2, 2011.

  1. C. Makropoulos, E. Rozos, and D. Butler, Urban water modelling and the daily time step: issues for a realistic representation, 8th International Conference on Hydroinformatics 2009, Concepcion, Chile, Curran Associates, Inc., 57 Morehouse Lane Red Hook, NY 12571 USA, 2011.

    Interest in modelling the total Urban Water Cycle is increasing, due to the realisation of the need for (high-level) flow integration to address issues of recycling, re-use and ultimately sustainability. Urban Water Cycle models are generally operating on a daily time step due to the inherent strategic/planning nature of such work. However, the choice of time step implies (more or less hidden) assumptions which may influence significantly the model’s performance. One such assumption – the way in which water tanks (e.g. rainwater, greywater, greenwater etc) are operated in terms of the sequence between tank overflow (spill) and water extracted from the tank for use (yield) is investigated in this paper. The two alternative sequences are termed here Yield After Spill (YAS) and Yield Before Spill (YBS). The Urban Water Optioneering Tool was used and advantages and disadvantages of these sequences were examined. The paper reviews the differences under a series of technological configurations and draws recommendations for modelling practice. It is suggested that YAS/YBS schemes have different impacts depending on the technological configuration of the case study under investigation, but that under normal operating conditions, daily time step simulations with YBS schemes tend to result in tank sizes that are (marginally) closer to sizes obtained by hourly time-steps. It is however suggested that YAS schemes should be preferred when the parameter of interest is runoff.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/917/1/documents/conf188a275_Fin2.pdf (114 KB)

  1. N. Evelpidou, N. Mamassis, A. Vassilopoulos, C. Makropoulos, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Flooding in Athens: The Kephisos River flood event of 21-22/10/1994, International Conference on Urban Flood Management, Paris, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4065.5601, UNESCO, 2009.

    During the night of the 20th of October 1994, a cold front passed over Greece, provoking heavy precipitation and consequently catastrophic floods in many areas of Greece. In some of the affected areas, the precipitation height was equivalent to 140 mm, while in the center of Athens the respective quantity was more than 140 mm. The Greater Athens area experienced one of the most devastating flood events in years, during which nine deaths were reported along with severe damages in the transportation, telecommunication and energy infrastructures. Dozens of homes and stores flooded, cars totally damaged, three buildings collapsed and hundreds of people trapped in cars and buildings give the outline of the disastrous impacts.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1163/1/documents/Kifissos_Chapter_COST22_v3.pdf (2115 KB)

    See also: http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.4065.5601

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Kandilioti, G. and C. Makropoulos, Preliminary flood risk assessment: the case of Athens, Nat. Hazards, DOI: 10.1007/s11069-011-9930-5, 2011.
    2. #Hildén, M., R. Dankers, T. Kjeldsen, J. Hannaford, C. Kuhlicke, E. Kuusisto, C. Makropoulos, A. te Linde, F. Ludwig, J. Luther and H. Wolters, Floods – vulnerability, risks and management, A joint report of ETC CCA and ICM, European Environment Agency, 2012.
    3. #Vanneuville, W., B. Werner, R. Uhel, et al., Water Resources in Europe in the Context of Vulnerability, EEA 2012 State of Water Assessment, European Environment Agency, 2012.
    4. Evrenoglou, L. S. A. Partsinevelou, P. Stamatis, A. Lazaris, E. Patsouris, C. Kotampasi and P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Children exposure to trace levels of heavy metals at the north zone of Kifissos River, Science of The Total Environment, 443, 650-661, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.041, 2013.
    5. Diakakis, M., An inventory of flood events in Athens, Greece, during the last 130 years: Seasonality and spatial distribution, Journal of Flood Risk Management, 10.1111/jfr3.12053, 2013.
    6. Diakakis, M., A. Pallikarakis and K. Katsetsiadou, Using a spatio-temporal GIS database to monitor the spatial evolution of urban flooding phenomena: the case of Athens Metropolitan Area in Greece, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 3 (1), 96-109, 2014.

  1. C. Makropoulos, E. Safiolea, A. Efstratiadis, E. Oikonomidou, V. Kaffes, C. Papathanasiou, and M. Mimikou, Multi-reservoir management with Open-MI, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Chania, A, 788–795, Department of Environmental Studies, University of the Aegean, 2009.

    The paper applies advanced integrated modeling techniques supported by the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI) standard to optimize water resources allocation for a rapidly growing rural area in Greece. Water uses in a rural basin are significantly affected by urban growth, changes in agricultural practices and industrial needs. This results in a complex water system, whose optimal configuration requires the combination of structural and non-structural approaches. Furthermore, the reliable operation of the water system may be placed under significant stress due to increasing trends of extreme events associated with potential climatic changes which affect freshwater availability. To evaluate and improve the system’s operation, a series of specialized models need to be linked and exchange data at runtime. The approach presented in this paper, used OpenMI (an open source, royalty free standard) to facilitate the direct, timestep-by-timestep, communication of models from different providers, written in different coding languages, with different spatial and temporal resolutions. The models were “migrated” to OpenMI and were run simultaneously, linked (exchanging data) at nodes specified by the modeler. The resulting integrated modeling system is tested in the Thessaly Water District, Greece, where growing water demand has often become an issue of conflict between stakeholders. As an example of the type of problems typically faced in the region, a system of two reservoirs receiving flows from different subbassins is designed to satisfy the water demand of the study area. The principal reservoir, the Smokovo reservoir, is a real reservoir, currently in operation, situated on the confluence of two streams, tributaries of the Pinios river. Downstream of Smokovo reservoir, the river flow has to satisfy a series of needs such as ecological flows, increasing irrigation needs, increasing potable water demand of the local municipalities, and production of electricity. The second reservoir introduced in this study is the potential rehabilitation of the Lake Xyniada, as a means to improve the overall resilience of the water system to extreme events and possibly decrease the costs (ecological-economic) of water consumption in the area. The integrated modeling system comprises of three OpenMI-compliant model components: a reservoir model (RMM), a hydraulic model with supporting rainfall-runoff modules (MIKE-11) and a multi-reservoir operational rule component. The models were set-up, calibrated, and linked to exchange data at runtime using data provided by the Public Power Corporation and the Ministry of Environment. The modeling system was run under different operating rules to assess the reliability of the combined reservoir system and compare it with the one-reservoir existing solution against different stakeholder objectives. The paper suggests indicative solutions from the preliminary analysis and concludes with the identification of key future challenges and ideas for further development.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/932/1/documents/openMI_chania.pdf (451 KB)

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. Fotopoulos, F., C. Makropoulos C., and M.A Mimikou, Flood forecasting in transboundary catchments using the Open Modeling Interface, Environmental Modelling and Software, 25(12), 1640-1649, 2010.
    2. #Moe, S. J., L. J. Barkved, M. Blind, C.. Makropoulos, M. Vurro, S. Ekstrand, J. Rocha, M. Mimikou, and M. J. Ulstein, How can climate change be incorporated in river basin management plans under the WFD? Report from the EurAqua Conference 2008, 27 p., Norwegian Institute for Water Research, 2010.

  1. C. Makropoulos, E. Rozos, and C. Maksimovic, Developing An Integrated Modelling System For Blue-Green Solutions, HIC 2014 – 11th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, New York City, USA, HIC2014-216, August 2014.

    Blue-green interventions represent the next level of integration for sustainable cities: that of an integrated urban water and urban green design, operation and management. The key concept is that a more holistic infrastructure design approach would present a win-win scenario, in which urban green would be utilized as infrastructure for water services (e.g. mitigating urban floods) while urban water infrastructure would be used as a source of irrigation for urban green, increasing their performance in a range of services including amenities, reducing heat island effects and increasing ecosystem services. However, this focus on integration brings into sharp relief another need: that of developing models and tools able to investigate the interactions between different green and blue system elements and processes. This “ecosystem” of models and tools presents a challenge due to its scope, in terms of development, but also the challenge of model integration. This paper discusses these challenges and proposes a three level approach to building an integrated modelling system for this case, which is able to: (a) support in the choice of appropriate models; (b) facilitate their linking in runtime and (c) enable the homogenization of results from the different models into common views supporting decision making. The use of standards, in this case OpenMI, are discussed in the light of the proposed approach. The concept is illustrated using a limited set of simple models developed for blue-green solutions design and the preliminary results are presented and discussed.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1489/1/documents/HIC2014-216.pdf (369 KB)

Conference publications and presentations with evaluation of abstract

  1. E. Rozos, D. Nikolopoulos, A. Efstratiadis, A. Koukouvinos, and C. Makropoulos, Flow based vs. demand based energy-water modelling, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, Vienna, EGU2015-6528, European Geosciences Union, 2015.

    The water flow in hydro-power generation systems is often used downstream to cover other type of demands like irrigation and water supply. However, the typical case is that the energy demand (operation of hydro-power plant) and the water demand do not coincide. Furthermore, the water inflow into a reservoir is a stochastic process. Things become more complicated if renewable resources (wind-turbines or photovoltaic panels) are included into the system. For this reason, the assessment and optimization of the operation of hydro-power systems are challenging tasks that require computer modelling. This modelling should not only simulate the water budget of the reservoirs and the energy production/ consumption (pumped-storage), but should also take into account the constraints imposed by the natural or artificial water network using a flow routing algorithm. HYDRONOMEAS, for example, uses an elegant mathematical approach (digraph) to calculate the flow in a water network based on: the demands (input timeseries), the water availability (simulated) and the capacity of the transmission components (properties of channels, rivers, pipes, etc.). The input timeseries of demand should be estimated by another model and linked to the corresponding network nodes. A model that could be used to estimate these timeseries is UWOT. UWOT is a bottom up urban water cycle model that simulates the generation, aggregation and routing of water demand signals. In this study, we explore the potentials of UWOT in simulating the operation of complex hydrosystems that include energy generation. The evident advantage of this approach is the use of a single model instead of one for estimation of demands and another for the system simulation. An application of UWOT in a large scale system is attempted in mainland Greece in an area extending over 130x170 km2. The challenges, the peculiarities and the advantages of this approach are examined and critically discussed.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1525/2/documents/Poster_UWOT.pdf (307 KB)

    Additional material:

  1. I. Tsoukalas, P. Kossieris, A. Efstratiadis, and C. Makropoulos, Handling time-expensive global optimization problems through the surrogate-enhanced evolutionary annealing-simplex algorithm, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, Vienna, EGU2015-5923, European Geosciences Union, 2015.

    In water resources optimization problems, the calculation of the objective function usually presumes to first run a simulation model and then evaluate its outputs. In several cases, however, long simulation times may pose significant barriers to the optimization procedure. Often, to obtain a solution within a reasonable time, the user has to substantially restrict the allowable number of function evaluations, thus terminating the search much earlier than required by the problem’s complexity. A promising novel strategy to address these shortcomings is the use of surrogate modelling techniques within global optimization algorithms. Here we introduce the Surrogate-Enhanced Evolutionary Annealing-Simplex (SE-EAS) algorithm that couples the strengths of surrogate modelling with the effectiveness and efficiency of the EAS method. The algorithm combines three different optimization approaches (evolutionary search, simulated annealing and the downhill simplex search scheme), in which key decisions are partially guided by numerical approximations of the objective function. The performance of the proposed algorithm is benchmarked against other surrogate-assisted algorithms, in both theoretical and practical applications (i.e. test functions and hydrological calibration problems, respectively), within a limited budget of trials (from 100 to 1000). Results reveal the significant potential of using SE-EAS in challenging optimization problems, involving time-consuming simulations.

    Full text:

  1. C. Makropoulos, and E. Rozos, Managing the complete Urban Water Cycle: the Urban Water Optioneering Tool, SWITCH, Paris, France, 2011.

    Conventional urban water management practices aim to meet water demands while conveying wastewater and stormwater away from urban settings. However, increasing water scarcity, caused by either changes in climatic conditions, increasing consumption, or both, has drawn attention to the possibility of re-engineering the urban water cycle to implement water recycling and reuse practices (Makropoulos et al., 2006). Examples of these new practices are the use of treated greywater (or “greenwater”) or harvested rainwater for a variety of non-potable water uses in the household. The successful design of water recycling schemes should attempt to minimize (simultaneously) the demands for potable water, the energy and cost, and perform adequately in the longer term – possibly even under changing climatic conditions. This paper describes the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT; Makropoulos et al., 2008), which is a decision support tool that supports the design of the complete (integrated) urban water cycle and helps to achieve sustainable water management for new and existing urban areas and explores both past applications and future developments within the context of new challenges for water in Europe.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1597/1/documents/Abstract_SWITCH.pdf (114 KB)

  1. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Ensuring water availability with complete urban water modelling, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2011, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 13, Vienna, European Geosciences Union, 2011.

    Increasing water scarcity, caused by either climate change or increasing consumption or both, has drawn attention to climate-sensitive adaptive strategies. These strategies include the possibility of re-engineering the urban water cycle to implement water recycling and reuse practices. For this reason a new generation of decision support tools capable of coping with these challenges is needed. UWOT (Urban Water Optioneering Tool) answers to this request by modelling the total urban water cycle and assessing its sustainability through a set of indicators. UWOT can support the planning of adaptive strategies for existing or new developments. Existing developments, for example, may include the installation of retrofit technologies (e.g. low flush toilets, in house water treatment units etc). In this case, UWOT can be used along with optimization algorithms to identify the optimum trade-off between the potable water demand reduction and the required cost (including energy). For new developments, more radical solutions (like central grey/rain water treatment units) can be adopted to manage the available water resources more efficiently. In this case, UWOT can help in the preliminary study of the required investment providing a rough dimensioning and an estimation of the pay-back period. Another issue that UWOT can help with is the investigation of the influence of climatic trends on the efficiency of water saving technologies. Rainwater harvesting, for example, directly depends on climatic conditions. UWOT can be used along with a stochastic model to provide a probabilistic approach for studying this uncertainty. Furthermore, UWOT can be used to examine a health issue related with the prolonged storage of harvested rainwater. Long periods of storage may result in significant degradation of the water quality rendering imperative the implementation of measures to maintain quality standards. UWOT can be used to investigate the necessity of such measures by calculating the Residence Time Index that characterizes the operation of a tank.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1121/1/documents/UWOT_EGU_2.pdf (3209 KB)

  1. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Assessing the combined benefits of water recycling technologies by modelling the total urban water cycle, International Precipitation Conference (IPC10), Coimbra, Portugal, 2010.

    Urbanisation is one of the most significant sources responsible for additional pressures (both qualitative and quantitative) on the environment. Typical quantitative pressures are the temporal changes of the hydrosystem's water flow pattern (due to alterations of the terrain) and the water abstractions (due to the water demand increase). Sustainable, water-aware technologies, like Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) and rainwater harvesting schemes, can be implemented to reduce these pressures. These technologies introduce interactions between the components of the urban water cycle. Rainwater harvesting for example, apart from the potable water demand reduction, has significant influence on the generated runoff. Consequently, integrated modelling of the urban water cycle is necessary for the simulation of the modern water technologies and the identification of their combined benefits. In this study, two hypothetical developments, referred hereafter as development H and development L, that implement rainwater harvesting scheme and SUDS are simulated using the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT). The characteristics of the developments H and L correspond to high and low urbanisation density. The study is organised into three stages. The first stage includes the calibration of UWOT's rainfall-runoff module. The second stage includes the identification of the optimum configurations of the developments that minimise the environmental pressures. The final stage includes a sensitivity analysis aiming to investigate the influence of the characteristics of the water appliances and technologies on the generated runoff. This study indicated that: (a) the localised measures are more efficient than the centralised technologies for mitigating the runoff peak; (b) the cost to minimise the pressures of new developments on the environment increases significantly with the urbanisation density both because of the increased population and the increased sensitivity of the runoff's maximum on the development characteristics; (c) if localised rainwater harvesting is implemented then the efficiency of the water appliances influences considerably the generated runoff.

    Full text:

Presentations and publications in workshops

  1. C. Makropoulos, E. Safiolea, A. Efstratiadis, E. Oikonomidou, and V. Kaffes, Multi-reservoir management with OpenMI, OpenMI-LIFE Pinios Workshop, Volos, 2009.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/919/1/documents/openMI_pinios_2009_evi.pdf (719 KB)

    See also: http://www.openmi-life.org/events/pinios-workshop.php?lang=0

  1. C. Makropoulos, D. Koutsoyiannis, and A. Efstratiadis, Challenges and perspectives in urban water management, Local Govenance Conference: The Green Technology in the Cities, Athens, Ecocity, Central Association of Greek Municipalities, 2009.

    Full text:

Various publications

  1. E. Rozos, S. Kozanis, and C. Makropoulos, Integrated Modelling System, BGD internal project report, 31 January 2014.

    Guidelines on the implementation of OpenMI standard at the BGD models.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1435/1/documents/BGD_IMS.pdf (649 KB)

  1. H. Perlman, C. Makropoulos, and D. Koutsoyiannis, The water cycle, http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclegreek.html, 19 pages, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.11182.92480, United States Geological Survey, 2005.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/660/1/documents/2005watercyclegreek.pdf (1516 KB)

    See also: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclegreek.html

Educational notes

  1. E. Rozos, and C. Makropoulos, Programming in Matlab for optimization problems, Athens, Greece, February 2011.

    Introduction to Matlab programming, notes and exercises.

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1122/1/documents/Matlab.pdf (240 KB)

  1. C. Makropoulos, and A. Efstratiadis, Lecture notes on Water Resource System Optimization and Hydroinformatics, 307 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, April 2011.

    Remarks:

    Lecture notes for the postgraduate course: Water resource systems optimization - Hydroinformatics.

    Full text:

Academic works

  1. C. Makropoulos, Spatial decision support for urban water management, 321 pages, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering – Imperial College, London, London, 2003.

    The research describes the development of a Spatial Decision Support System for Urban Water Management and its application in the particular domain of Water Demand Management. The primary hypothesis stated and discussed is that the development of decision support systems with a distinct spatial character (i.e. spatial decision support systems (SDSS)) based on soft computing can assist the decision maker within the urban environment and result in more informed decisions. The thesis investigates the use, within an integrated decisional platform, of different tools (including mathematical modelling, geographic information systems, decision support techniques, spatial analysis, fuzzy inference systems and evolutionary programming). It develops new soft computing techniques, adapts techniques that are available in other domains and combines them in an innovative way to facilitate urban water planning and management. The prototype Spatial Decision Support System developed is tested under a variety of different user inputs and assumptions and is used to discuss alternative water demand management strategies. It is concluded that the prototype developed is a flexible tool that can be adapted to the characteristics of the problem at hand while its transparent nature greatly enhances the inclusion and handling of uncertainty and risk throughout the decision making process. Although the work presented here is open to further development, improvement and testing, it is felt that it is a promising research direction and could be of great potential benefit to the decision making process within the water industry.

Research reports

  1. C. Makropoulos, D. Damigos, A. Efstratiadis, A. Koukouvinos, and A. Benardos, Synoptic report and final conclusions, Cost of raw water of the water supply of Athens, 32 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, October 2010.

    Related project: Cost of raw water of the water supply of Athens

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1099/1/documents/Kostos_Nerou_EYDAP_Teuxos_5.pdf (418 KB)

    Other works that reference this work (this list might be obsolete):

    1. #Makropoulos, C., and E. Papatriantafyllou, Developing roadmaps for the sustainable management of the urban water cycle: The case of WW reuse in Athens, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference of Environmental Science and Technology, Athens, 2013.

  1. C. Makropoulos, A. Efstratiadis, and A. Koukouvinos, Appraisal of financial cost and proposals for a rational management of the hydrosystem, Cost of raw water of the water supply of Athens, 73 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, October 2010.

    Related project: Cost of raw water of the water supply of Athens

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1097/1/documents/Kostos_Nerou_EYDAP_Teuxos_3.pdf (1053 KB)

  1. C. Makropoulos, A. Koukouvinos, A. Efstratiadis, and N. Chalkias, Mehodology for estimation of the financial cost , Cost of raw water of the water supply of Athens, 40 pages, Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, July 2010.

    Related project: Cost of raw water of the water supply of Athens

    Full text: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/getfile/1008/1/documents/Kostos_Nerou_EYDAP_Teuxos_1__.pdf (732 KB)

Engineering reports

  1. C. Maksimovic, H. S. Wheater, D. Koutsoyiannis, S. Prohaska, D. Peach, S. Djordevic, D. Prodanovic, C. Makropoulos, P. Docx, T. Dasic, M. Stanic, D. Spasova, and D. Brnjos, Final Report, Analysis of the effects of the water transfer through the tunnel Fatnicko Polje - Bileca reservoir on the hydrologic regime of Bregava River in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Commissioner: Energy Financing Team, Switzerland, Contractors: CUW-UK, ICCI Limited, London, 2004.

    The possible effects of water transfer through the tunnel Fatnicko Polje - Bileca Reservoir on the hydrologic regime of the Bregava River located in Eastern Herzegovina, in an area characterised by a predominantly karstic terrain, are studied. Three different simulation models of the area were developed and their predictions compared under a range of current and future hydrological and operational management conditions. These are based on a range of modelling approaches from a simplified conceptual approach to a quasi-physically based one. Despite the large complexity of the natural system, the models gave good fits to existing flow data with the most simplified model providing the closest agreement to historical flows. Calibrated models were used to study the possible effects of the intervention under a range of operational scenarios and identify the sources of the associated uncertainties. The results of the work suggest that the system of tunnels in question has a favourable effect in reducing flood hazard in the area, thus liberating scarce land resources for agriculture, and in reduction of flows in the Bregava River, especially the high flows. It is also suggested that a significant reduction in the uncertainty of modelling the karstic environment can be achieved by an appropriate, complementary combination of modelling approaches viewed as a multi-model ensemble.

    Related works:

    • [19] Summary of the study (journal publication).

    Related project: Analysis of the effects of the water transfer through the tunnel Fatnicko Polje - Bileca reservoir on the hydrologic regime of Bregava River in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Full text: